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Tony 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

分詞構句等文法觀念大解析

如題

希望管理員不要刪

分詞構句真是一門深奧的文法

舉例子來說

When hearing the news, Maria grinned from ear to ear.

這句話當然也可以簡化寫為

Hearing the news,Maria grinned from ear to ear.

但當碰到 Because /As /Since S+V,S+v...時

只能解寫為 V-ing...,S+V[此情況是前後主詞相同時]

不能寫為 Because V-ing..,S+V

好 第一個問題來囉

若今天有一個句子

Although Tina loved Ted, she still gave him a cold shoulder.

這句話能否寫為

Although loving Ted,Tina still gave him a cold shoulder. 嗎?

這句話我想請各位大大幫忙看一下

還有一句

If you ace the tests, you can be given a scooter.

可以寫為

If acing the tests,you can be given a scooter. 嗎?

第二個問題

他已死了三年

第一種說法可以說

He has been dead for three years.

第二種說法為

It has been three years since he died.

但 絕不能寫

He has died for three years.

死是瞬間動作 不能用完程式

但是 我們今天老師說

have + died 其實用在某些句子是對的

請問是哪些句子 我們老師沒有做深入講解

能否請各位幫忙回答

感激不盡

6 個解答

評分
  • Elisa
    Lv 7
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    第一個問題來囉

    Although Tina loved Ted, she still gave him a cold shoulder.

    這句話能否寫為

    Although loving Ted,Tina still gave him a cold shoulder. 嗎?

    => Yes

    If you ace the tests, you can be given a scooter.

    可以寫為

    If acing the tests,you can be given a scooter. 嗎?

    => Yes

    第二個問題

    我們今天老師說

    have died 其實用在某些句子是對的

    請問是哪些句子 我們老師沒有做深入講解

    => If the death happened recently, then you can use the words “has died” to indicate that person has recently died (has just died).

    For instance,

    (1) Chess master Bobby Fischer, one of the greatest chess players in history, has died, a spokesman for the World Chess Federation confirmed to CNN Friday. He was 64.

    => The death happened the day the report came out – from CNN.

    http://www.cnn.com/2008/US/01/18/fischer.obit/inde...

    (2) By Robert W. Welkos and Susan King, Special to The Times

    April 6, 2008

    Charlton Heston, the Oscar-winning actor who achieved stardom playing larger-than-life figures including Moses, Michelangelo and Andrew Jackson and went on to become an unapologetic gun advocate and darling of conservative causes, has died. He was 84.

    Heston died Saturday at his Beverly Hills home, said family spokesman Bill Powers.

    The new was reported on Sunday and the death happened on Saturday – from LA Times

    http://www.latimes.com/la-me-heston6apr06,0,367531...

    (3) Science-fiction author Arthur C. Clarke, seen here in this photograph taken at his home in Sri Lanka in December 2007, has died at the age of 90 after suffering breathing problems, an aide says.

    Clarke died early Wednesday at age 90 - Associated Press reported at 10:32 a.m. CT, Wed., March. 19, 2008

    http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23697230/#storyContinu... .

    2008-08-22 01:22:38 補充:

    Hi, Eleven,

    Really! I didn't notice that about my son. People have told me that my daughter looks like Suri Cruise. Luckily, nobody questions that they are my kids.

    2008-08-22 04:05:18 補充:

    If you looked where people normally use the words "have died", you can see a pattern that it was used mostly in news reporting - see references.

    2008-08-22 04:11:16 補充:

    Hi, Kevin

    You should gather all your grammar explanations and publish in a book or at your blog. I am doing that for the knowledge groups and my blog too.

    2008-08-22 04:11:32 補充:

    Maybe I will publish a book about grammar eventually (maybe we can co-author the book), in addition to an English-Chinese dictionary if I get the time.

    2008-08-22 18:11:35 補充:

    Hi, Kevin

    I am not English major either. I majored in Economics and Finance. However, I also don't work in that field either. I am a project manager. Talking about fooling around!

    2008-08-22 18:11:59 補充:

    It is just my passion for English that pushes me to answer the questions here and also the situation that I saw around the English education in Taiwan. Maybe not just the English education, but the entire education system. I like the American education system.

    2008-08-22 18:13:48 補充:

    If you are still interested, let me know. What can I help the Taiwanese people maybe pretty limited because it is hard for me to translate what I said from English to Chinese.

    I am not thinking of it doing that any time sooner. Maybe something to do when I am getting ready for retirement.

    2008-08-22 18:17:37 補充:

    What I can help the Taiwanese people maybe pretty limited because it is hard for me to translate what I said from English to Chinese. The other day, I told my husband that I can probably volunteer to be an ESL teacher for Chinese. His comment was that they would not understand my Chinese.

    2008-08-22 18:18:22 補充:

    I am not thinking of publishing the books any time sooner. It is just a thought. Maybe something to do when I am getting ready for retirement.

    2008-08-23 00:11:13 補充:

    Hey, Kevin

    My first born will be in Kindergarten this coming fall and I am already thinking about retirement. I think what you do here will help to convince people when you want to switch career. I will give you my full support.

    2008-08-23 00:11:48 補充:

    If that means anything to anyone. Anyway, that is also part of the reason that pushes me to continue to answer questions, a way to sharpen my skill. You just need to start exploring. That is what I have been doing.

    2008-08-23 00:12:27 補充:

    I have talked to our school district and search online for freelance translation opportunities. I am also thinking about teaching ESL to immigrants. My work is also pretty stressful and I would also like to spend more time with my kids since they are still so young.

    2008-08-23 00:12:47 補充:

    Hi, 姚姚 或 阿國

    I hope that you don’t mind us using this as a chatting ground since you have already gotten us, the very best, to answer your question. Just kidding!

    參考資料: Myself. Went abroad at age 11. With over 32 years of experience speaking and writing English. Tutored English as an Undergrad. A project manager in the US since 1992.
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  • 1 0 年前

    I am so shocked that Kevin hasn't majored in English at school before.

    Judging from Kevin's asnwers over the past days, I thought he used to.

    And I believe no matter what you majored in before, surely you're outstanding in this field.

    2008-08-24 17:57:29 補充:

    and I am quite excited to know you;re taking English teaching into account.

    2008-08-24 18:36:31 補充:

    瞬間動詞如果不是和for+時間,或since連用,是可以造完成式的,表已完成

    以上是個人認知及坊間書籍所示

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  • 1 0 年前

    真的很感謝 諸位大師的回答

    不論結果為何 諸位大師都是值得敬佩的

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  • Kevin
    Lv 7
    1 0 年前

    大家好:

    分詞構句的確須要一番功夫才比較能領略其來龍去脈. 在此就個人所知提供參考.

    在老外眼中, 分詞是屬於"形容詞", 表達主詞的狀態. 問題是, 在某些狀況下, 它又隱含"副詞"的語意. 就如您舉的例子:

    When Maria heard the news, she grinned from ear to ear.

    When hearing the news, Maria grinned from ear to ear.

    這樣的"簡化(reduction)"是可以的. 但是把連接詞去掉後, 就"可能"引起爭議:

    Hearing the news, Maria grinned from ear to ear.

    因為除了作者之外, 沒有人可以確認原來的語意到底是[When ...]還是[Because ...]

    沒有連接詞的情況下, 句子的解讀自由度很大, 只要講得通都行. 所以某些狀況下, 之所以要保留連接詞, 就是因為要避免解讀的偏差. 但是一般說來, 表示"原因"的連接詞, 習慣上不予保留.

    也就是說, 如果不想讓讀者解讀為"因為"或其他意思, 最好保留連接詞.

    Although Tina loved Ted, she still gave him the cold shoulder.

    可以寫為:

    Although loving Ted, Tina still gave him the cold shoulder.

    更可以寫:

    Tina, although loving Ted, still gave him the cold shoulder.

    http://72.14.235.104/search?q=cache:3bQZRk--PFEJ:g...

    If you ace the tests, you will be given a scooter.

    可以寫為:

    If acing the tests, you will be given a scooter.

    但是更常見的說法是:

    Ace the tests, and you will be given a scooter.

    至於第二個問題, 我的意見是:

    文法的角色, 是"解釋"人們為何這樣說, 而不是來"規定"人們怎麼說. 違反法律, 可能損害他人利益, 要受罰; 不合文法, 頂多被人視為"怪咖", 格格不入而已(考試時當然例外). 重點是盡量去"了解"人們為何這樣說, 如此當自己要用的時候, 人家才不會誤解或不解, 達成"溝通"的目的.

    He is dead.

    He has been dead for three years.

    It's been three years since he died.

    He died three years ago.

    這些是大家都會看到的正常句子. 可能在不同的場合使用.

    "[have + died]"當然可以在適當的場合使用. 完全看作者要表達的意思來決定.

    Sax player in Dave Matthews Band has died.

    戴夫馬修樂團的薩克斯風手已然辭世.

    http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26302031/

    但是, 在內文的第一句用的是[died](在週二去逝):

    LeRoi Moore, the versatile saxophonist whose signature staccato fused jazz and funk overtones onto the eclectic sound of the Dave Matthews Band, died Tuesday of complications from injuries he suffered in an all-terrain vehicle accident, the band said.

    2008-08-21 17:11:27 補充:

    另一則報導, 包括標題在內的前三句, 用了三種不同的時態:

    *US Rep. Tubbs Jones of Ohio dies(今日與世長辭) after hemorrhage.

    *A Cleveland Clinic official says Democratic U.S. Rep. Stephanie Tubbs Jones of Ohio has died(已然辭世).

    2008-08-21 17:11:39 補充:

    *Clinic spokeswoman Eileen Sheil says Tubbs Jones died at 6:12 p.m. (在下午六點十二分過世)Wednesday after suffering a brain hemorrhage caused by an aneurysm that burst and left her with limited brain function.

    2008-08-21 17:11:56 補充:

    http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080820/ap_on_el_ge/co...

    2008-08-22 11:14:12 補充:

    Hi Inner and Elisa,

    I am so flattered! But I am still a learner when it comes to English, and answers I have written here in Knowlege+ are but information I learned here and elsewhere, maybe rearranged a bit to be more understandable for beginners.

    2008-08-22 11:14:27 補充:

    Looking back at them, I can still find some errors or inappropriate contents to correct. You are sure welcome to use what you think is helpful, if you understand that those came from a person who majored in what is totally irrelevant to English. ^_^

    2008-08-22 11:14:56 補充:

    As for publishing books, wow, that's too much for me, at least for now.

    Actually I am considering teaching English reading in a way more systemic, effective, interesting, but less exam-oriented as in most "cram schools."

    2008-08-22 11:19:34 補充:

    English learning should be life-time work as opposed to how it is dealt currently here in Taiwan.

    Anyway, it's great to have friends like you here for me to learn more from. Thanks!

    2008-08-22 17:59:08 補充:

    I live in Chiayi.

    2008-08-22 21:53:16 補充:

    Retirement!? I might be too old to be a teacher, but with my son being just one year away from graduation from the elementary school, I am definitely too young to talk, or even think, about retirement.

    2008-08-22 21:53:30 補充:

    I am thinking of teaching as a second career hopefully being able to take the place of my current one, which is risky, tiresome, and even not paying in proportion to the labour. What I have to overcome first is how to convince people that I can teach with my shyness of degrees in the field.

    2008-08-23 13:14:23 補充:

    Thanks for your encouraging ideas and support! ^_^

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  • eleven
    Lv 5
    1 0 年前

    每個老師對文法的見解略為不同,

    既然您有在學,

    建議直接把您的疑問拿去問他會比較好喔!

    文法有很多解讀法的!

    還有,除非您要參加某項很嚴謹的考試,

    否則文法請拿來做參考,

    不要奉為聖經。

    **  文法是歸納用法,

    不同時代不同國家不同人看法都不同。 **

    2008-08-21 10:07:28 補充:

    to Elisa:

    Your son looks like a Japanese boy.

    He looks so healthy and cute!!

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  • 1 0 年前

    我先針對你說的那 have + died 的用法做解釋。

    如果你要表達:已經死了→這個事實。 以強調的口吻,我們用完成式表達。

    His grandfather has died‧他的祖父已經死了。

    這裡沒有只是陳述〝死〞的事實真相(死不會持續,死了就死了,不可能一直死,因此不會有進行式的表達)

    他已死了三年。

    第一種說法可以說

    He has been dead for three years.→這裡要強調的就不是〝死〞的事實真相,而是

    〝死亡〞時間已過了多久,因此要用形容詞;形容死的時間已過了多久

    →你會發現上下兩句最大的差異:是三年這個時間的─經過多久

    於是在強調時間的經過這個特點下,會產生第二種第二種說法:

    It has been three years since he died. → 自他死後,(時間)已過了三年。

    這裡的時間就是此英文句子中主詞的It~

    希望對你有幫助,若有不懂,再不吝指教。

    2008-08-22 00:34:53 補充:

    Kevin's explaination is discreet.

    2008-08-22 00:37:10 補充:

    Kevin's explanation is discreet.

    revise the word → explaination to

    2008-08-22 02:16:10 補充:

    To kevin:

    May I collect your grammer explanations on my blog to share those who are eager for advacing their English ability?

    2008-08-22 15:13:11 補充:

    To Kevin:

    I don't know where you live; otherwise,I really want to have a talk something about learning and teaching of English with you.

    參考資料: 自己 是教高中文法多年的人。。。
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