The systems approach to designing instruction was introduced by James Finn.Seels (1989) states that Finn
"was a father of the instructional design movement
because he linked the theory of systems design to
educational technology, and thus encouraged the integrated growth
of these related fields of study. It was Finn who made educational
technologists aware that technology was as much a process as a piece
of hardware" (Seels 1989, 11).
James Finn also established a Commission on Definition and
Terminology whose goal was to define the field and
The term "hypertext" was coined by Ted Nelson,
who defined it in his self-published Literary Machines
as "non-sequential writing" (1965)
Norman Crowder developed "intrinsic" programming.
In this model, a learner's possible responses are multiple choice,
and the program branches depending on the response chosen.
Students could omit steps they already knew or return to study remedial material
on information already presented.
enlarged upon Crowder's ideas about non-linear sequencing.
A shift from norm-referenced testing to criterion-based testing was noted.
Norm-Referenced evaluations compare the student's performance against the performance of other students and are most often summative.
Criterion-Referenced testing is the assessment of student mastery of specific skills regardless of other student
performance and are almost always formative.
The focus was on the development of instructional materials.