? 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

能幫我詳細翻譯嗎??不要翻譯機的 謝謝

How to organize your presentation

You should be aware of fundamental differences between an oral presentation and a written report. In the presentation the listener by necessity has to follow the order the in which the speaker present his material. The reader of an article can skip parts, go back to the materials section, take a preview at the conclusions when he reads the results, etc. Exactly because of this reason, all scientific reports follow the generally adopted structure of Abstract – Introduction –Experimental Methods –Results – Discussion – Conclusions – References. However, this structure is totally UNSUITABLE for an oral presentation. Nevertheless, the majority of contributed talks at a conference adheres to it.

Why is this generally accepted structure unsuitable for lectures? Because the listener will have to remember details about the experimental methods until the results are presented, and he must recall the various results when the speaker deals with the discussion. In other words, details that should be combined (the why, how, what and what does it mean of a particular experiment) are treated separately. You ask a lot from the audience if they need to remember all these facts and figure until at the end you explain how these bits and pieces fit in a larger picture.

Grouping together what belongs together is a much better way to organize talk. Hence, if you discuss characterization by e.g. XPS, you start this part of the presentation with a few introductory remarks of what you want to learn about your catalyst, how XPS may help you to provide this information, when you show a few results and you discuss what they mean.

End with a conclusion. Then you go to the next item in your presentation, which may be determination of particle size by TEM. When finished with this, you may give an overall conclusion on the state of your catalyst before you go on to speak about catalytic behavior.

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  • 小黑
    Lv 4
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    How to organize your presentation如何充份準備上台報告

    You should ....... results, etc.

    首先,你應當要清楚地瞭解口頭報告與書面報告之間有何不同。以口頭報告為例,聽眾必定會逐字逐句聆聽演說著所述說的內容;然而,當人們閱讀書面報告時,若他們只是想知道重點,即可以跳過許多章節,直接閱讀文章重點或結論。

    Exactly because ..... adheres to it.

    也因為這樣的理由(跳過章節,直接看重點或結論),所有的科學期刊之撰寫都得按照下列的七大步驟:摘要、簡介、內容(實驗的過程與方法)、成果(實驗過程的成果但未定論)、驗證(成果)、定論、參考文獻與資料。這樣的步驟是完全不適合用於口頭報告,但口頭報告的內容結構卻和這些步驟脫不了關係。

    Why is ..... discussion.

    為什麼對聽眾演講時不能逐步依照這七個標準步驟呢?因為,若依照這樣的方式對聽眾演講,那麼聽眾必需記下許多的實驗過程與方法,才得以理解各程的實驗成果;同時,在演講者宣佈最後的定論時,聽眾又必須回想先前的各種實驗成果(才能理解演講者所宣佈的定論)。

    In other words,..... larger picture.

    換句話說,報告重點必需一一的集中(為什麼會這樣、如何產生、什麼物品、什麼樣的特別實驗等等)。當聽眾必需在演講過程中記下許多細節並在你下定論時還得將先前的細節一一整理才能理出頭緒的話,如此就並非是一場優質的演講。

    Grouping..... you discuss what they mean.

    統整相同的要點並適當傳達給聽眾才能成就一場優質演講。因此,舉例你想介紹XPS,一開始你可以提及研究動機,再說明XPS是如何提供你相關研究資訊,而當你做結論時,同時還需解釋這些結論所代表的涵義。

    End with ..... catalytic behavior.

    到此做為一個段落的結束。接著你繼續演講下一個主題應是有關TEM所形成的表面粒子之大小。最後,在你說明催化劑所產生的反應前,你應當對你的研究動機下出定論。

    「後面幾段,我找了許多資料,將一些奇怪的詞如XPS、TEM、catalyst結合起來一起查尋,發現這些詞有些共同點,似乎是有關科學類的東西,因為我不懂,所以翻譯起來可能有些地方怪怪的,不過還好這不是研究,只是你教你怎麼報口,你參考參考。」

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  • 1 0 年前

    謝謝!!

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