小貝仔 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

would have+V.pp的用法和意思?@@

有一個英文句子想問各位英文高手大大們QQ

during this interval of reduced sunlight a ''long winter''would have made life increasingly difficult and would have had a detrimental effect on the food chain.

我只記得以前學過,與過去事實相反的過去假設語氣時,會在後面的子句用should/would/could....+have+V.pp

但是這個句子不是與過去事實相反呀@@

充其量只能說是推論過去~

而且這裡也沒有出項假設語氣用的像是if等等字樣

難到這裡也用與過去事實相反的假設語氣?還是這其實是其他的文法?

請各位英文大大幫我這個忙~謝謝大家了QQ

3 個解答

評分
  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    During this interval of reduced sunlight a ''long winter''would have made life increasingly difficult and would have had a detrimental effect on the food chain.

    在日照不足的間隔期間, 漫長的寒冬應已使生存益增艱困並應已對食物鍊造成戕害效應.

    註: 譯文中的"應已"就是would have PP, 表對過去事物的判斷或推測.

    除了與過去事實相反的假設語氣會用到would/should/could/might have PP 以外, 英文文法另有一個單元"情態動詞/助動詞(Modal Verb/Auxiliary)"也用得到, 而且用得很徹底。

    情態助動詞,如may, must, need, would, could, should, might等。情態動詞與其他動詞連用表示說話人的語氣。情態動詞可表達建議、要求、可能和意願等。情態動詞沒有人稱和數的變化。

    1. must have PP

    must have PP 表示推測過去某事“一定”發生了。其否定形式為:can't / couldn't have PP, 表示過去不可能發生某事。例如:

    1)Since the ditch is full of water, it must have rained last night.

    2)You couldn’t have met my grandmother. She died before you were born.

    2. could have PP

    could have PP 表示推測過去某動作“很可能”發生了。例如:

    1)The dictionary has disappeared. Who could have taken it?

    2)Tom could have taken it. He was alone yesterday.

    3. may / might have PP

    may / might have PP表示推測過去某事“也許”發生了.may 比 might 表示的可能性在說話人看來稍大些。例如:

    I can't find my keys. I may / might have left them at the school yesterday.

    4. ought to / should have PP 和 ought not to / shouldn't have PP

    用於對已發生的情況表示“責備”、“不滿”,分別表示“本應該…”和“本不應該…”。例如:

    1)With all the work finished, I should have gone to the party last night.

    2)You ought not to make fun of him. He is not the one you laugh at but learn from.

    5. needn't have PP

    needn't have PP表示過去做了某事,但沒有做的必要, 意為“本沒必要…”。例如:

    You needn't have waken me up; I don't have to go to work today.

    註:表示推測過去某動作發生的可能性時,就表示的可能性程度而言,must最大,could其次,may更次之,might最小。例如:

    “I wonder how Tom knew about your past.”

    “He must / could / may / might have heard of it from Mary.”

    參考資料: The Internet, cycnet.com
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  • 呆子
    Lv 7
    1 0 年前

    would have+V.pp 表示過去應發生而未發生,用法與過去事實相反的假設語氣相似,但並無其制式句型。*****

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  • 過去式助動詞+ have+過去分詞 通常與過去有關的事:

    例如:

    should have + P.P. 表示過去該做而未做的事

    would have + P.P. 表示過去將做而未做的事

    2008-10-23 14:43:18 補充:

    在這縮短日照的隆冬期間對食物鏈中生命的生存越來越艱難也有不利的影響。

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