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Property owners and their agents (for example, security guards) may only use reasonable force to protect their property. For example, setting booby traps on a property to hurt trespassers and shooting at trespassers are usually forbidden except in extreme circumstances. Several US states, however, preserve to varying degrees the Castle Doctrine, a concept from English common law allowing the use of deadly force against trespassers. The US state of Texas in particular has especially broad guidelines for the acceptable use of deadly force.[1]

Not all persons seeking access to property are trespassers. The law recognizes the rights of persons given express permission to be on the property ("invitees") and persons who have a legal right to be on the property ("licensees") not to be treated as trespassers; for example, a meter reader on the property to read the meter. A police officer seeking to execute a warrant is a licensee. A surveyor studying the land for government use (usually map making). Someone such as a door-to-door salesman or missionary (a Jehovah's Witness or Mormon for example), would be a solicitor and not afforded the invitee exclusion to enter the private portion of the premises, and therefore be a trespasser. In a more recent case, Jehovah's Witnesses refused to get government permits to solicit door-to-door in Stratton, Ohio. In 2002, the case was heard in the U.S. Supreme Court. The Court ruled in favor of the Jehovah's Witnesses, holding that making it a misdemeanor to engage in door-to-door advocacy without first registering with the mayor and receiving a permit violate the first Amendment as it applies to religious proselytizing, anonymous political speech, and the distribution of handbills.

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  • Lisa
    Lv 7
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    業主及其代理人(例如,警衛)只可使用合理的武力以保護他們的財產。例如,設置誘殺裝置的財產傷害入侵者.除非在極端的情況下,射擊侵入者通常是被禁止。但是,美國的幾個州,都保留了不同程度的城堡學說,這個概念是由英國普通法允許使用致命的武力打擊入侵者而來。尤其是美國德州普遍接受使用致命武力的概念。 [ 註 1 ]

    並非所有試圖進入房地產的人都被視為是入侵者。法律認可得到明確許可的人的權利得以進入( “被邀請者” )和合法擁有此房地產的人( “許可證” )不被視為入侵者. 例如,丈量土地者進入丈量土地。警官執行勤務時所持的就是一種許可證。為政府工作的土地使用(通常是地圖製作) 。有人如挨家挨戶的推銷員或傳教士(例如耶和華見證人或摩門教徒) ,將是一個律師,而不是給予的邀請排斥進入私營部分的處所,因此是一個侵入者。在最近的情況下,耶和華見證會拒絕讓政府許可徵求門到門的斯特拉頓,俄亥俄州人。 2002年,該案件的聆訊在美國最高法院。法院裁定有利於耶和華見證會,認為這輕罪進行門到門的宣傳首先登記市長和接收許可證,違反了第一次修訂,因為它適用的宗教說教,匿名的政治演說,和分發傳單。

    2008-10-28 18:10:55 補充:

    親愛的.您不知道回答只限300字以內嗎?

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