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miumiu 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

幫忙翻譯 (英翻中)....急!!!請不要用翻譯軟體

請幫幫忙囉!!!!!!!!!!!(請不要用翻譯軟體~~謝謝!!)

R&D labs have limited capacities. R&D depth was reduced in the 1990s, as manufacturing depth was reduced in the 1980s. R&D labs are productive when they are selective, when they do what they have already done many times and when they focus on core capabilities. The organizational emphasis is shifting from self-made to bought-in: suppliers, independent laboratories, IP intermediaries and universities are typical sources. Under the technological core capability paradigm the new oper ating tenet is to ‘‘own only what you must; influence all you can’’ (Harris et al., 1996). The most successful virtual companies are at the center of networks that are far from egalitarian (Chesbrough

and Teece, 1996, p. 70). They retain control over the network of their partners. This position cannot be maintained unless the company directly controls some key technologies. Companies need a process to discriminate between ‘‘must have’’ (technologies that

must be owned) and ‘‘nice to have’’ technologies.

However, many R&D organizations still fear to lose ownership over what they consider future key technologies. Most companies apply portfolios to manage their outsourcing decisions; they provide standard strategies for well-defined situations. Many use technology life cycles to make R&D investment, control and divestiture recommendations. But the decision to give up existing technologies is one of the most difficult managementdecisions (e.g., Grove, 1997).

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  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    Roche: outsourcing and virtual R&D

    羅氏藥廠: 外包與虛擬研發

    Roche outsourced much of the R&D process to specialized partners and suppliers, or set up focused external R&D service providers.

    羅氏藥廠將許多研發的工作外包給專業合作伙伴與供應商, 或是成立一個專門的外部研發服務單位.

    For instance, Roche established Protodigm, a ‘‘virtual drug development company’’ in London, UK (Hofmann, 1997).

    比方說, 羅氏藥廠成立了Protodigm, 一個位於英國倫敦的虛擬藥品開發公司 (Hofmann, 1997).

    In one typical case, Protodigm learned of a certain molecule, i.e., a prospective new medical substance, being discovered in a university laboratory. Protodigm then facilitated further research by guiding the R&D process: It contacted specialized companies for testing the substance, coordinated the first clinical trials, and contracted out production, second-stage clinical development, manufacturability tests, drug registration, marketing, and even sales.

    典型的例子就是, Protodigm 得知某大學實驗室即將發現某特定分子, 也就是某備受期待的新醫療物質. Protodigm 就協助其完成接下來的研發工作: 包括聯絡專業公司對該物質的進行測試, 協調首次臨床試驗, 簽約製造, 第二階段臨床試驗, 製造能力測試, 藥物註冊, 市場行銷, 以及甚至於銷售工作

    2008-12-18 16:09:49 補充:

    In 1997, 10 Protodigm employees simultaneously oversaw three drug-development projects in various stages of pharmaceutical development.

    在1997年有十名Protodigm的員工同時監督三個處在不同製藥階段的藥品開發專案.

    2008-12-18 16:10:36 補充:

    Protodigm selected the most qualified subcontractor for each stage of R&D, thus reducing overall R&D costs and development time.

    Protodigm嚴選了最好的約聘人員進註每一個研發階段, 因此而減少整體研發費用與開發時間.

    2008-12-18 16:11:20 補充:

    The objective was cutting down R&D costs by 40% without jeopardizing the already tight development schedule. Merck was said to have saved US$ 170 million with this type of outsourcing in 1996.

    此舉的目的是在不影響原本就已相當緊湊的研發時程下, 還能降低研發成本達40%. 據說默克公司在1996年藉由這樣的外包工作節省了一億七千萬美元.

    2008-12-18 16:13:52 補充:

    Behind this trend was a fundamental change in the pharmaceutical industry: Basic research was increasingly sourced out to big universities or small, specialized companies

    在此潮流後製藥工業有了徹底的改變: 基本研究已被大量的外包給一些知名大學或小型的專業公司.

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  • 1 0 年前

    R& D實驗室限制了容量。 R& 当製造的深度在20世紀80年代,減少了D深度在20世紀90年代減少了。 R& D實驗室是有生產力的,当他們是有選擇性的时,当他們做时什麼他們已經做了許多次,并且,当他們集中于核心能力时。 組織重點從自制轉移到買下: 供應商、獨立實驗室、IP中介和大學是典型的來源。 在技術核心能力範例之下新的操作ating的原則是對``只擁有什麼您必須; 影響您能"的所有(等哈里斯, 1996)。 最成功的真正公司是在是遠離平均主義者網絡的中心(Chesbrough 并且Teece 1996年, p. 70)。 他們保留对他們的夥伴網絡的控制。 除非公司直接地控制一些关键技术,這個阵地不可能坚守。 公司需要過程歧視在``之間必须有" (技術那必须擁有好`的`)和有"技術。然而,許多R& D组织仍然恐懼丟失在什麼的歸屬他們认为未來关键技术。 多数公司应用股份單處理他們的採購決定; 他們為明確定義的情況提供標準戰略。 許多使用技術生命周期做R& D投資、控制和剝奪推薦。 但是給现有的技術的決定是其中一最困難的managementdecisions (即, Grove 1997)。

    參考資料: 奇摩字典
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