cgn888 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

請問祈使句和命令句的不同?

第一個問題:

我想請問祈使句(imperative)和命令句有何不同?

我看書上的資料和自己的想法是:

(1)動詞開頭的句子都叫祈使句。

(2)祈使句裡面,有命令意味的,才是命令句。

(3)故命令句一定是祈使句。祈使句不一定是命令句。

以下是我遇到的一些例句:

Let us go. 是祈使句中的命令句。(省略主詞You should)

See you soon!是祈使句不是命令句。(省略I hope、I can)

Excuse me!是祈使句不是命令句。(省略主詞you)

第二個問題來了:

Let's go!:是祈使句不是命令句。(我不知道是省略了什麼?)

已更新項目:

賴世雄老師說過如下:

(1)

Let's go, shall we?是祈使句,故反問句用we。

*Let’s開頭的祈使句,不管肯定、否定恆用shall we。

(2)

Let us go, will you?是命令句不是祈使句,故反問句用you。

*命令句不論肯定、否定,恆用will you反問。

(2)是省略了主詞you沒問題,故用you反問,我也懂。

但就是(1)讓覺得怪怪的,用『we』反問,那省略的主詞是什麼?

2 個已更新項目:

Louis大大:

您好像弄混了我的問題說。

Let us go! 省去的還是 you,因為你在徵求聽者的同意。←這個我知道。

我問的是Let's go!省略的主詞是?

而且

Let us go.:(你)放我們走吧!

Let's go!:咱們走吧!

應該是不同的事情吧?我忘了哪裡有特地澄清這兩句話。

所以總之,祈使句範圍是比命令句大就是摟?

3 個已更新項目:

Elisa謝謝您,我整理如下,可否幫我看一下是否有誤解你的意思。

(1)cohortative mood (勸告語氣)

*受詞為第一人稱,表示請求、命令。

Ex:Let us pray

Ex:Let us sit

Ex:Let’s go (somewhere).

4 個已更新項目:

(2)the imperative mood (祈使語氣)

*主詞為第二人稱。

*和勸告語氣相比,祈使語氣需有個人(第三方),來同意這件事。勸告語氣則不用。

*為免混淆,Let us用於祈使語氣,Let’s用於勸告語氣。

Ex:(You) Do it now.

Ex:(You) Let my people go.

Ex:(You) Let us go (free).

(3)jussive mood (命令語氣).

*類似勸告語氣,但受詞為第二、三人稱。

ex:Let them swarm.

5 個解答

評分
  • Elisa
    Lv 7
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    Hi, Cn888

    I think that your questions are about the differences among the following three moods: cohortative mood (勸告語氣), the imperative mood (祈使語氣) and the jussive mood (命令語氣).

    See http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/conference/07-Caucasu...

    A. Cohortative is a volitive mood of the 1st person, used to express plea, insistence, imploring, self-encouragement, wish, desire, intent, command, purpose or consequence.

    The difference between Cohortative and Imperative is in that there is an agent capable of granting the desired freedom. For example: Let us pray vs "Let my people go".

    From the linguistic point of view, the cohortative mood in this utterance is a plural form of exhortation, i.e. a speaker exhorts himself to do a given task like “Let us go!”, “Let us sit!”.

    For example:

    1. Let us pray

    => I am making a suggestion to us that we pray.

    2. Let us sit

    => I am suggesting that we sit.

    5. Let’s go (somewhere).

    => I am suggesting that we go (somewhere).

    B. Imperative is the volitive mood of the 2nd person, in the positive, expressing commands, direct requests, and prohibitions. Mainly used for immediate action (here and now). Sometimes it is used for a more or less remote action (which is usually expressed by future).

    For example:

    1. (You) Do it now.

    2. (You) Let my people go.

    => I am commanding you to let my people go.

    3. (You) Let us go (free).

    To avoid confusion, an uncontraction form of "let us" is used in forming the imperative mood; while “let’s” in the cohortative mood.

    C. Jussive is a directive mood that signals a speaker’s command, permission or agreement that the proposition expressed by his or her utterance be brought about. It is similar to the cohortative mood, in that is expresses insistence, imploring, self-encouragement, wish, desire, command, purpose or consequence. Cohortative occurs in the first person and the jussive in the second or third.

    For example:

    Let them swarm.

    2009-05-25 22:53:17 補充:

    http://wiki.frath.net/Classical_Arithide_conjugati...

    http://www.wikinfo.org/index.php/Imperative_mood#I...

    參考資料: Myself. Went abroad at age 11. With 32 years experience speaking and writing English. Tutored English as an Undergrad. A project manager in the US since 1992
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  • 匿名使用者
    10 年前

    原來表請求的語氣有這麼多種,受教了

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  • 弒殺
    Lv 4
    1 0 年前

    發問者來稿一個全英文的解答~~喝喝

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  • 1 0 年前

    祁使句跟命令句的差別在於語氣。

    我們走吧!再見!抱歉!

    都沒有強迫人要做動作。

    安靜!閉嘴!起立!坐下!

    都有強迫人做動作的意思。

    因此只要看內容有沒有要求人動作的語氣存在即可判斷。

    2009-05-20 20:37:48 補充:

    英文文法是一個統計而不是一個真理。

    例如

    I am boring文法上是 我令人討厭

    但是這句話常用的意思是 我很無聊很厭煩。

    這就是沒照文法走的例子。

    因此不是每個英語文法都能套用進去。

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  • Louis
    Lv 7
    1 0 年前

    the imperative mood祈使語氣

    祈求 + 指使 = 祈使

    祈求是下對上的請求

    指使是上對下的要求

    所以命令句(上對下的要求)只是祈使語氣的一種

    Let us go! 省去的還是 you,因為你在徵求聽者的同意。

    Let's go! 同一句話,如果口氣不對,就會由請求變成要求。

    所以祈使句不一定是命令句,但命令句屬於祈使句。

    除祈使語氣外,還有the indicative mood(敘述語氣)和the subjunctive mood(假設語氣)

    語氣共有以上三種。

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