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英文paper段落翻譯

以下是一段有關植物構造與功能的英文paper

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Branch junctions are structures that withstand strong static

and dynamic loads for many years. The mechanical design

of a branch junction has to provide not only the stability

and optimal functionality of the branch but also mechanical

safety for the stem. Another important property is damage

tolerance when the branch is broken or shed, e.g. defence

against micro-organisms at the defect (Shigo 1989). To the

tree, the mechanical safety of the stem is of primary concern

and has to be balanced versus the mechanical stability

of the branches. They are, on the one hand, necessary for

photosynthesis but, on the other hand, increase the sail

area, creating a potential source of danger to the stem in the

case of strong wind. From the fracture mechanical perspective,

a branch junction also represents a notch in the

stem. Stem failure often occurs at damaged branch junctions

or knots. It was shown that force controlled

optimisation of the shape of stem and branches is an

essential tool for the control of the stress distribution at the

surface (Mattheck 1998) and also for introducing preferred

points of failure as safety mechanism or for propagation

purposes (Niklas and Spatz 2000; Beismann et al. 1997). A

local change of the branch diameter at the branch collar

(Shigo 1989) or at a crotch (Genenz et al. 1997) were

described as such ‘preferred points of failure’.

The alternating pattern of interlocking stem- and branch

bound tissue below the branch is an important feature that

provides stability for the junction. Its mechanical implications

were discussed in detail by Shigo (1989). The stem

bound tissue stabilises the branch collar and the large

surface area between the growth ring layers increases the

fracture toughness (Fig. 1).

1 個解答

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  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    樹枝的接合點是一個能夠長年抵擋 強大的靜電 和 動力的負擔 的結構。樹枝的接合點 這種物理的設計 不僅能提供樹枝最理想的機能 還能提供樹幹 物理上的安全。另一個重要的性能就是當植物被破壞時,受破壞的限度。例如: 在有缺陷之處防禦微生物。對樹而言,物理上的安全是最重要的事 且要與 相對的樹枝的物理穩定性 達到平衡狀態。它們,一方面,是光合作用所必要的;另一方面,能增加航行(飄)的面積,但強大的風也對樹幹造成一種潛在的危險。從斷裂的物理上的觀點,一個植物的性能也代表了它樹幹的等級。樹幹衰退的原因通常是因為植物的性能被破壞。Mattheck發現,控制樹幹和樹枝最佳化的力量,是一個潛在的工具,可用來控制表面應力的分佈,甚至採用為機械和繁殖目的失敗時的優先的要點。一個樹枝環上或枝枒上,樹枝直徑的局部的改變,被稱為”優先的一點或衰退”。 樹幹上相互連結的交替的圖案,和在樹枝下的樹枝連接組織,是個非常重要的特徵,他可以提供性能 穩定度。

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