Sustained by的中文翻譯

1. Change of position Where a defendant has been enriched, he may still be able to plead the defence of change of position. The effect of the defence is to reduce the quantum of enrichment recoverable by the claimant from the amount originally received to the amount still retained. Clearly, it is crucial to... 顯示更多 1. Change of position
Where a defendant has been enriched, he may still be able to plead the defence of change of position. The effect of the defence is to reduce the quantum of enrichment recoverable by the claimant from the amount originally received to the amount still retained. Clearly, it is crucial to identify what conduct on the part of the defendant counts as a relevant change of position. For example, it is plain that if the defendant has paid his electricity bill out of the enrichment received, he has not relevantly changed his position, since he would have had to pay the bill anyway. What is needed therefore is to establish a causal connection between the enriching event and losses sustained by the defendant, such as, for example, sums that he would not otherwise have expended and which he cannot now recover.

背景說明:
這是關於不當得利的比較法研究。
以上這個段落是講到原告要求被告返還不當得利時,
被告可能主張的抗辯。例如1.地位(狀態)的變更。

舉例說明(這個段落沒提到):
例如A誤把彩劵給B,
B也善意以為自己中大獎兩百萬,就去環遊世界。
之後A才要跟B請求不當得利。
B就(以地位的變更)抗辯說,我已經把不當得利花完了,
沒錢還妳也不是我的錯。

最後一句是疑問處
大意是被告需要去建立因果關係
亦即建立不當得利事件與損失之間的因果關係

問題在於:losses sustained by the defendant
是指 一、 ”由被告所舉證的支出”
或是指 二 、 ”被告所蒙受的損失”

sustain有好幾個意思: 支撐 維持等等
似乎又分別衍生出 忍受 蒙受 以及 舉證 的意思

想請教英文高手們
依照你們的語感
一、或二 、哪一個翻譯是正確的呢

一個是我的老師的看法 一個是我自己的翻譯
我爭辯了 老師也企圖說服我 但我無法接受
為免影響各位起見 先不提哪個是老師的看法
更新: 不好意思 英文單字有些地方換行會斷掉
我不知如何修改 請見諒
更新 2: 線上翻譯就不用了 謝謝
更新 3: 謝謝 hillman 的回答
您還去查找原文所引用的文獻
真是太感動了
更新 4: 我在閱讀英文上不夠純熟
所以您所引用的文章 我先試譯如下
更新 5: 謝謝 hillman 的回答
您還去查找原文所引用的文獻
真是太感動了

我有一些後續的疑問
這裡似乎貼不下
若移動到您的疑難作業研究室
不知是否妥當
3 個解答 3