旋心 發問時間: 科學化學 · 1 0 年前

急急急!!!有人能幫我翻譯這篇化學鍵的文章嗎?

Remembering that opposite charges attract, and that the electrons orbiting the nucleus are negatively charged and protons in the nucleus are positively charged, then imagine two atoms near each other which form a covalent bond.

In the simplest view of a so-called non polar/ polar covalent bond, one or more electrons—often a pair as in this example—is drawn into the space between the two atomic nuclei. Here the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positive charges of both nuclei, instead of just their own. This overcomes the repulsion between the two positively charged nuclei of the two atoms and so this overwhelming attraction holds the two nuclei in a relatively fixed configuration of equilibrium, even though they will still vibrate at equilibrium position. In summary, covalent bonding involves sharing of electrons in which the positively charged nuclei of two or more atoms simultaneously attract the negatively charged electrons that are being shared.

In a simplified view of an ionic bond, the positive charge of one of the nuclei overwhelms the positive charge of the other nucleus, thus effectively transferring an electron from one atom to another, causing one atom to assume a net positive charge, and the other to assume a net negative charge. The bond then results from electrostatic attraction between atoms, and the atoms become positive or negatively charged ions.

All bonds can be explained by quantum theory, but in practice, simplification rules allow chemists to predict the strength, directionality, and polarity of bonds. The octet rule and VSEPR theory are two examples. More sophisticated theories are valence bond theory which includes orbital hybridization and resonance, and the linear combination of atomic orbitals molecular orbital method which includes ligand field theory. Electrostatics are used to describe bond polarities and the effects they have on chemical substances.

2 個解答

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  • steve
    Lv 6
    1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    要記得相反電荷會互相吸引,還有圍繞原子核的電子是負電荷,原子核內的質子是正電荷,然後再想像二個原子彼此靠近會形成共價鍵。

    共價鍵中所謂的極性、非極性,最簡易的觀點是;一或多個電子(很多例子是一對)在二原子之間,負電荷被正電的原子核吸引,此吸引力克服了二個原子核(正電)之間的排斥力,而使得二個原子能有固著的組態而平衡(就算在平衡位置共價鍵仍然有振動)。總結而言,共價鍵包含了一或多原子之間共用電子,同時正電的原子核吸引負電荷的電子。

    離子鍵的簡化的觀點是;一個原子核的正電荷超越另一個原子核,因此有效地轉移(吸引)一個電子到此原子,此原子就帶負電荷,另一個就帶正電荷。離子鍵就形成了正、負離子之間的吸引力。

    所有的鍵都可以用量子理論來解釋,而實務上,化學家用簡化的規則來預測鍵的強度、方向以及極性;八隅體、VSERP理論就是例子。更為精細的理論是:價鍵理論,此包含軌域混成和共振,以及原子分子軌域的線性組合分法(包括配位場理論)。而靜電學被使用於描述化學物質的鍵的極性與結果。

    參考資料: myself
  • 匿名使用者
    6 年前

    到下面的網址看看吧

    ▶▶http://qaz331.pixnet.net/blog

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