Remembering that opposite charges attract, and that the electrons orbiting the nucleus are negatively charged and protons in the nucleus are positively charged, then imagine two atoms near each other which form a covalent bond.
In the simplest view of a so-called non polar/ polar covalent bond, one or more electrons&mdash;often a pair as in this example&mdash;is drawn into the space between the two atomic nuclei. Here the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positive charges of both nuclei, instead of just their own. This overcomes the repulsion between the two positively charged nuclei of the two atoms and so this overwhelming attraction holds the two nuclei in a relatively fixed configuration of equilibrium, even though they will still vibrate at equilibrium position. In summary, covalent bonding involves sharing of electrons in which the positively charged nuclei of two or more atoms simultaneously attract the negatively charged electrons that are being shared.
In a simplified view of an ionic bond, the positive charge of one of the nuclei overwhelms the positive charge of the other nucleus, thus effectively transferring an electron from one atom to another, causing one atom to assume a net positive charge, and the other to assume a net negative charge. The bond then results from electrostatic attraction between atoms, and the atoms become positive or negatively charged ions.
All bonds can be explained by quantum theory, but in practice, simplification rules allow chemists to predict the strength, directionality, and polarity of bonds. The octet rule and VSEPR theory are two examples. More sophisticated theories are valence bond theory which includes orbital hybridization and resonance, and the linear combination of atomic orbitals molecular orbital method which includes ligand field theory. Electrostatics are used to describe bond polarities and the effects they have on chemical substances.
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