Pei 發問時間: 健康其他:保健 · 1 0 年前

請幫我把這篇翻成英文 (20點) 急~~~

海洛因(英語:heroin或diacetylmorphine),學名二乙醯嗎啡;又譯海洛英,俗稱「白粉」;台灣又稱「四號」,香港又稱「四號仔」、「軟仔」。屬於鴉片毒品系列中最純淨的精製品。

世界各國對海洛因控制相當嚴格,販運海洛因屬嚴重罪行,可判處罰款、終身監禁或死刑,但因它售價高昂,至今仍成為多國最常濫用的毒品。每克海洛因約值358.7港元(2005年)。

起源

1874年,任職倫敦聖瑪莉醫院的化學家偉特(C.R Wright)最先利用嗎啡加上醋酸酐,在爐上燃煮,增強效力,合成出海洛因。該化合物之後送到英國曼城奧雲士學院(Owens College)研究。該學院把海洛因注射到狗隻及白兔體內,牠們當時有驚恐、渴睡、瞳孔放大、流大量口水、有欲吐的跡象、呼吸最先加速然後紓緩,心跳減弱而不正常等。

海洛因發明後,最初原用作強效止痛藥。1897年,德國拜爾藥廠化學家荷夫曼(Felix Hoffmann)在德國將海洛因製成藥物,止痛效力遠高於嗎啡(11日前,他剛成功將阿斯匹林製成藥物)。海洛因(Heroin)的名字由拜爾藥廠註冊,該字或源自德文heroisch一字,意指英雄。

自1898至1910年間,該藥上市時,以不會上癮的嗎啡作招徠,更曾用作兒童止咳藥,後來始發現該藥在肝臟中會轉化成嗎啡,令拜爾藥廠大為尷尬。

服用

海洛因一般處於白色粉末狀態,故俗稱白粉,苦味,吸食者一般將注射入體內,亦有人會口服、直接用鼻吸入粉末以及煙霧等。以鼻吸入海洛因俗稱為「追龍」。一般吸食者會將白粉會混入其他雜質,如粉筆的粉或葡萄糖,亦有人混入安非他命或巴比土酸鹽,部分人會因此吸食過量致死,部分注射食者會共用針筒,因而染上愛滋病或肝炎。

影響

使用初有感覺愉快安靜,無法集中精神,會產生夢幻現象。之後的12小時,身體由於得不到麻醉劑而不能正常運作,即時出現緊張、無法入睡、出汗、腸胃不適、四肢疼痛及痙攣等斷癮症狀。這症狀持續三到五天。濫用越久,斷癮症狀越長。過量使用造成急性中毒,症狀包括昏睡、呼吸抑制、低血壓、瞳孔變小。具高度心理及生理依賴性,上癮的人因身體對它有適應性,會不斷增加份量以得到相同的效果。長期使用後停藥會發生渴求藥物、不安、流淚、流汗、流鼻水、易怒、發抖、惡寒、打冷顫、厭食、腹瀉、身體捲曲、抽筋等禁斷症,所以成癮後極難戒治。

分級

海洛因按照純度而分成4級,其中1號至3號海洛因一般在較落後的地區出售,純度最高的4號海洛因多售予富庶地區。以香港為例,4號海洛因已完全取代3號海洛因,但自1990年以來,四號海洛因的純度不斷下降,現時的純度是44.97%。

一號和二號海洛因實際指嗎啡或嗎啡鹽類,三號海洛因是將鹽酸嗎啡製成二乙醯嗎啡後,再添加大量的稀釋劑而製成的,二乙醯嗎啡和單乙醯嗎啡總含量一般為25%至45%。四號海洛因是在鹽酸嗎啡經乙醯化反應後不稀釋,而是提純,沉澱,乾燥。最終產品為白色,無味,透明粉末,非常細膩甚至擦在皮膚上會消失。其二乙醯嗎啡含量一般在80%以上,最高可達99%。

世界的監管

中國內地:根據《中華人民共和國刑法》,販賣毒品(含海洛因)50克或以上,即可判處死刑。

香港:根據《危險藥物條例》,販運危險藥物人士最高可被判終身監禁及罰款500萬港元

新加坡:根據現行新加坡法律第一百八十五章,未經許可而進、出口多於15克的海洛因,或製造任何數量之海洛因者,一經定罪會一律被判處死刑。

台灣:依《毒品危害防制條例》第2條第2項第1款規定,海洛因、嗎啡、鴉片、古柯鹼及其相類製品,為第一級毒品。再依同條例第4條第1項規定,製造,運輸,販賣第一級毒品者,處死刑或無期徒刑;處無期徒刑者,得併科新臺幣一千萬元以下罰金。

馬來西亞:根據馬來西亞毒品條列第39B,任何人販運毒品(如海洛因、嗎啡、鴉片等。)如罪成唯一刑法為繯首死刑。

治療

美沙酮替代療法。

請各位大大不要用翻譯機

感謝!!!!!!!!!!

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請問一夏這是用翻譯機翻的嗎?

1 個解答

評分
  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    這是報告要用的???==盡量幫你翻正確吧....

    Heroin (in English: heroin, or diacetylmorphine), scientific name diethyl amide morphine; also translated heroin, commonly known as [white powder] ; Taiwan, also known as 「IV」, Hong Kong also known as 「fourth class」, 「soft-earners.」 Belongs to the most pure opium drug series refined products.

    Countries around the world very stringent control of heroin trafficking in heroin is a serious offense, punishable by a fine, life imprisonment or the death penalty, but it is expensive and still become the most commonly abused drug in the multinational. Per gram of heroin worth about 358.7 billion(2005).

    Origin

    In 1874, serving London, St. Mary Hospital, chemist Waite (CR Wright) first use of morphine with acetic anhydride, in the furnace burning cooking to enhance the effectiveness of synthesized heroin. The compound was sent to England after the Manchester City Academy with disabilities Owen (Owens College) study. The Institute of heroin injected into dogs and rabbits in vivo, they are frightened at that time, sleepiness, and dilated pupils, a large number of saliva flow, there are signs of Yu Tu, breathing first and then speed up the relief instead of a normal heartbeat and so weakened.

    After the invention of heroin, the first of the original as a powerful painkiller. In 1897, the German pharmaceutical firm Bayer chemist Josef Hofmann (Felix Hoffmann) is made in Germany heroin drug, much higher than the analgesic effect of morphine (11 days ago, he had just successfully finished products, aspirin). Heroin (Heroin) name registered by Bayer Pharmaceuticals, the word or heroisch from the German word, which means hero.

    From 1898 to 1910, the drug to market in order to not addictive morphine to provoke, but also was used for children's cough medicines, the drug was only found in the liver are converted into morphine, so that pharmaceutical companies Bayer significantly embarrassment.

    (第5段的文字"招徠"的徠字打錯了..幫你修正為來)

    盡量翻譯嚕

    如果還有些些錯==你就默認吧

    反正報告用ㄉXD

    因為翻譯超過可以輸入的字數所以使用補充的

    2010-01-21 10:44:28 補充:

    Taking

    Heroin are at a white powder state, it is commonly known as white powder, bitter, abusers usually will be injected into the body,

    2010-01-21 10:45:12 補充:

    while others will be oral, direct use of powder and smoke inhalation. With inhalation of heroin known as "chasing the dragon." Heroin addicts in general will be mixed with other impurities, such as chalk powder or glucose,

    2010-01-21 10:45:26 補充:

    while others mixed with amphetamines or barbiturates, some people will smoke too much death, some of those who will be injecting fresh needle-sharing, which contracted AIDS or hepatitis.

    2010-01-21 10:45:38 補充:

    Impact

    Use the beginning of a feeling of quiet pleasure, inability to concentrate, will produce the phenomenon of fantasy. After 12 hours, the body can not be due to lack of the normal operation of anesthesia, instant tense, unable to sleep,

    2010-01-21 10:46:13 補充:

    sweating, gastrointestinal discomfort, pain in the limbs, and withdrawal symptoms such as cramps. This is three to five days duration of symptoms. The longer the abuse, withdrawal symptoms longer.

    2010-01-21 10:46:23 補充:

    Caused by excessive use of acute poisoning symptoms include drowsiness, respiratory depression, hypotension, pupil smaller. With a high degree of psychological and physical dependence, people were physically addicted to it adaptive, will continue to increase the weight to get the same effect.

    2010-01-21 10:46:32 補充:

    Long-term use of drugs after the withdrawal will happen thirst, anxiety, tears, sweating, runny nose, irritability, shivering, aversion to cold, playing chills, anorexia, diarrhea, body curled, cramps and other cut-off disease, so addiction to the posterior pole difficult treatment to reject.

    2010-01-21 10:46:57 補充:

    Rating

    In accordance with the purity of heroin and is divided into four, of which 1 to 3 of heroin is usually in the more backward regions, the highest purity of heroin No. 4, selling more prosperous areas. Hong Kong, for example,

    2010-01-21 10:47:06 補充:

    No. 4 heroin, has been completely replaced by No. 3 heroin, but since 1990, declining purity of heroin on the 4th, at present, the purity is 44.97%

    2010-01-21 10:47:34 補充:

    I and II refer to heroin, morphine or morphine actual salts, on the 3rd of heroin is made of diacetyl morphine hydrochloride, morphine, after acyl, and then add a large number of thinner made, diethyl amide acetyl morphine and morphine alone the general content of 25% to 45%.

    2010-01-21 10:47:54 補充:

    Heroin is a morphine hydrochloride on the 4th through the acetylation reaction is not diluted, but the purification, precipitation and dry.

    2010-01-21 10:48:02 補充:

    The final product is a white, odorless, transparent powder, very fine and even rub on the skin will disappear. Diacetyl morphine content of its acyl generally above 80% up to 99%.

    2010-01-21 10:48:25 補充:

    Supervision of the world

    Mainland China: According to the "Criminal Law", trafficking in drugs (including heroin), 50 grams or more, can be sentenced to death.

    2010-01-21 10:48:58 補充:

    Hong Kong: According to "The Dangerous Drugs Ordinance," trafficking in dangerous drugs the maximum penalty is life imprisonment and a fine of 5 million Hong Kong dollars

    Singapore: Under the existing laws of Singapore 185th chapter of unauthorized import and export more than 15 grams of heroin,

    2010-01-21 10:49:08 補充:

    or manufacture of any quantity of heroin who, upon conviction will be sentenced to death.

    2010-01-21 10:49:21 補充:

    Taiwan: According to a "drug harm Prevention Act," Article 2, paragraph 2, paragraph 1, heroin, morphine, opium, cocaine and similar products, for the first class of drugs. Again under the same section 4,

    2010-01-21 10:49:30 補充:

    paragraph 1, provides manufacturing, transportation, first-level drug trafficking in persons, the death penalty or life imprisonment; life imprisonment persons, and a NT fined 10 million yuan.

    2010-01-21 10:49:37 補充:

    Malaysia: Malaysian drug-sections, according to the first 39B, any person trafficking in drugs (such as heroin, morphine, opium, etc..) If convicted of only the first death penalty to tie.

    2010-01-21 10:49:44 補充:

    Treatment

    Methadone replacement therapy.

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