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1874年，任職倫敦聖瑪莉醫院的化學家偉特（C.R Wright）最先利用嗎啡加上醋酸酐，在爐上燃煮，增強效力，合成出海洛因。該化合物之後送到英國曼城奧雲士學院（Owens College）研究。該學院把海洛因注射到狗隻及白兔體內，牠們當時有驚恐、渴睡、瞳孔放大、流大量口水、有欲吐的跡象、呼吸最先加速然後紓緩，心跳減弱而不正常等。
- ╳×沉默〞☆Lv 51 0 年前最佳解答
Heroin (in English: heroin, or diacetylmorphine), scientific name diethyl amide morphine; also translated heroin, commonly known as [white powder] ; Taiwan, also known as 「IV」, Hong Kong also known as 「fourth class」, 「soft-earners.」 Belongs to the most pure opium drug series refined products.
Countries around the world very stringent control of heroin trafficking in heroin is a serious offense, punishable by a fine, life imprisonment or the death penalty, but it is expensive and still become the most commonly abused drug in the multinational. Per gram of heroin worth about 358.7 billion（2005）.
In 1874, serving London, St. Mary Hospital, chemist Waite (CR Wright) first use of morphine with acetic anhydride, in the furnace burning cooking to enhance the effectiveness of synthesized heroin. The compound was sent to England after the Manchester City Academy with disabilities Owen (Owens College) study. The Institute of heroin injected into dogs and rabbits in vivo, they are frightened at that time, sleepiness, and dilated pupils, a large number of saliva flow, there are signs of Yu Tu, breathing first and then speed up the relief instead of a normal heartbeat and so weakened.
After the invention of heroin, the first of the original as a powerful painkiller. In 1897, the German pharmaceutical firm Bayer chemist Josef Hofmann (Felix Hoffmann) is made in Germany heroin drug, much higher than the analgesic effect of morphine (11 days ago, he had just successfully finished products, aspirin). Heroin (Heroin) name registered by Bayer Pharmaceuticals, the word or heroisch from the German word, which means hero.
From 1898 to 1910, the drug to market in order to not addictive morphine to provoke, but also was used for children's cough medicines, the drug was only found in the liver are converted into morphine, so that pharmaceutical companies Bayer significantly embarrassment.
2010-01-21 10:44:28 補充：
Heroin are at a white powder state, it is commonly known as white powder, bitter, abusers usually will be injected into the body,
2010-01-21 10:45:12 補充：
while others will be oral, direct use of powder and smoke inhalation. With inhalation of heroin known as "chasing the dragon." Heroin addicts in general will be mixed with other impurities, such as chalk powder or glucose,
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while others mixed with amphetamines or barbiturates, some people will smoke too much death, some of those who will be injecting fresh needle-sharing, which contracted AIDS or hepatitis.
2010-01-21 10:45:38 補充：
Use the beginning of a feeling of quiet pleasure, inability to concentrate, will produce the phenomenon of fantasy. After 12 hours, the body can not be due to lack of the normal operation of anesthesia, instant tense, unable to sleep,
2010-01-21 10:46:13 補充：
sweating, gastrointestinal discomfort, pain in the limbs, and withdrawal symptoms such as cramps. This is three to five days duration of symptoms. The longer the abuse, withdrawal symptoms longer.
2010-01-21 10:46:23 補充：
Caused by excessive use of acute poisoning symptoms include drowsiness, respiratory depression, hypotension, pupil smaller. With a high degree of psychological and physical dependence, people were physically addicted to it adaptive, will continue to increase the weight to get the same effect.
2010-01-21 10:46:32 補充：
Long-term use of drugs after the withdrawal will happen thirst, anxiety, tears, sweating, runny nose, irritability, shivering, aversion to cold, playing chills, anorexia, diarrhea, body curled, cramps and other cut-off disease, so addiction to the posterior pole difficult treatment to reject.
2010-01-21 10:46:57 補充：
In accordance with the purity of heroin and is divided into four, of which 1 to 3 of heroin is usually in the more backward regions, the highest purity of heroin No. 4, selling more prosperous areas. Hong Kong, for example,
2010-01-21 10:47:06 補充：
No. 4 heroin, has been completely replaced by No. 3 heroin, but since 1990, declining purity of heroin on the 4th, at present, the purity is 44.97%
2010-01-21 10:47:34 補充：
I and II refer to heroin, morphine or morphine actual salts, on the 3rd of heroin is made of diacetyl morphine hydrochloride, morphine, after acyl, and then add a large number of thinner made, diethyl amide acetyl morphine and morphine alone the general content of 25% to 45%.
2010-01-21 10:47:54 補充：
Heroin is a morphine hydrochloride on the 4th through the acetylation reaction is not diluted, but the purification, precipitation and dry.
2010-01-21 10:48:02 補充：
The final product is a white, odorless, transparent powder, very fine and even rub on the skin will disappear. Diacetyl morphine content of its acyl generally above 80% up to 99%.
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Supervision of the world
Mainland China: According to the "Criminal Law", trafficking in drugs (including heroin), 50 grams or more, can be sentenced to death.
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Hong Kong: According to "The Dangerous Drugs Ordinance," trafficking in dangerous drugs the maximum penalty is life imprisonment and a fine of 5 million Hong Kong dollars
Singapore: Under the existing laws of Singapore 185th chapter of unauthorized import and export more than 15 grams of heroin,
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or manufacture of any quantity of heroin who, upon conviction will be sentenced to death.
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Taiwan: According to a "drug harm Prevention Act," Article 2, paragraph 2, paragraph 1, heroin, morphine, opium, cocaine and similar products, for the first class of drugs. Again under the same section 4,
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paragraph 1, provides manufacturing, transportation, first-level drug trafficking in persons, the death penalty or life imprisonment; life imprisonment persons, and a NT fined 10 million yuan.
2010-01-21 10:49:37 補充：
Malaysia: Malaysian drug-sections, according to the first 39B, any person trafficking in drugs (such as heroin, morphine, opium, etc..) If convicted of only the first death penalty to tie.
2010-01-21 10:49:44 補充：
Methadone replacement therapy.