A turning point came in 1923, when Gropius dismissed Itten and replaced him with the resolutely modern Hungarian Constructivist László Moholy-Nagy. In the same year, the school mounted an exhibition with the no-nonsense title "Art and Technology--A New Unity." The painter Oskar Schlemmer announced the back-on-track Bauhaus ethic in a polemic that was only partly tongue in cheek: "Death to the past, to moonlight, and to the soul."
Now came much more of the work we think of as quintessentially Bauhaus: spare, sharp-lined products like Marianne Brandt's geometric tea-and-coffee sets and Josef Albers' austere little stacking tables. Marcel Breuer devised his soon-to-be-famous tubular steel chairs with their bands of stretched black canvas, a skeletal combination of lines and taut planes that looked like an X-ray of a chair. Even then, while factory production may have been the aspiration for many pieces, old-fashioned handcraft may still have been the method behind them. The interlocking grids of Albers' glasswork Goldrosa give it a rectitude that says "modern," but the complicated technique used to produce it was practically medieval.
To the Bauhaus way of thinking, geometric abstraction was the language of modernity, and the grid was one of its most powerful instruments, a formal system that could confine Expressionist excesses. In the catalog to the MOMA show, which was organized by curators Barry Bergdoll and Leah Dickerman, there's a color photograph of Gropius' righteously Cartesian office, with a right-angular chair resting on a grid-patterned carpet and a grid-patterned tapestry hanging on one wall.
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1923年是個轉折的時間點，那時Gropius開除Itten改採用具革命性的現代匈牙利建構主義主義者László Moholy-Nagy。同年，結構學派舉辦一個非-無意識為的展覽主題「藝術和技術—新的連結」。畫家Oskar Schlemmer宣稱這是反向追尋Bauhaus倫理，部分地反映出論證︰ 「過去、月光與靈魂之死」。