關於糖尿病治療的一些英文

Traditionally, this is done with blood obtained by a finger stick, but new methods of monitoring glucose through the skin are available.

這一段是我不太懂他所說的傳統法跟新方法有什麼差別?

Insulin may be given in divided doses by injection or by means of an insulin pump that delivers the hormone around the clock (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; CSII)

Every few months, physicians obtain more precise indications of long-term glucose control with a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test.This test is based on glucose uptake by red blood cells and reflects the average blood glucose levels for 2 to 3 months before the test.

Exercise and weight loss for those who are overweight are the first approaches to treating type 2 diabetes, and these measures often lead to management of the disorder. Drugs for increasing insulin production or improving cellular responses to insulin may also be prescribed, with insulin treatment given if necessary.

這一段我不瞭解 為何會造成混亂

Insulin is now made by genetic engineering. There are various forms with different action times that can be alternated(交替) to achieve glucose regulation. Excess insulin may result from a pancreatic tumor, but more often it occurs after administration of too much hormone to a diabetic patient. The resultant hypoglycemia leads to insulin shock, which is treated by the administration of glucose.

Methods of administering insulin in pills or capsules, inhaler spray, or skin patches are still experimental. Researchers are also studying the possibility of transplanting healthy pancreas or islet cells to compensate for failed cells. Another area of research is the use of immunosuppression to halt type 1 DM.

Also used to diagnose endocrine disorders are imaging techniques, other measurements of hormones or their metabolites in plasma and urine, and studies involving hormone stimulation or suppression.

不用全翻譯,只要解釋每一段在說什麼就好了

不希望有google的直接全貼上來

1 個解答

評分
  • 提姆
    Lv 7
    10 年前
    最佳解答

    傳統上,這是使用指端採血,但新的監視血糖方法可直接從皮膚。(意思是說不用採血)

    胰島素可用注射分次給予或用幫浦日夜不斷給予(連續皮下胰島素輸注 CSII)

    每幾個月,醫師可獲得比較精確的長期血糖控制指標 - 糖化血紅素 (HbA1c)。這個試驗是基於紅血球對葡萄糖的吸收並反應了測試前2-3個月的平均血糖濃度。

    對於過重的第二型糖尿病患者,運動和減重是治療的首要方法,而這些手段通常可處理這個疾病。增加胰島素製造或改善細胞對胰島素反應的藥物,如有需要也可和胰島素一起給予。

    胰島素目前是利用基因工程製造,有不同型各有不同作用時間長短,可交替使用達到血糖控制。過多的胰島素可能是由於胰臟腫瘤,但更多的情況是施打過多荷爾蒙到糖尿病患者身上。這樣造成的低血糖會導致胰島素休克,要用注射葡萄糖來治療。

    用藥丸、膠囊、吸入性噴劑或皮膚黏貼片來給予胰島素仍在實驗中。研究人員也在探討移植胰臟或蘭氏小島細胞以彌補無法分泌胰島素細胞之可能性。另一個研究的領域是利用免疫抑制阻斷第一型糖尿病的進行。

    用來診斷內分泌疾病的還有影像技術、測量血清及尿液中荷爾蒙或其代謝物濃度及荷爾蒙刺激或抑制的分析。

    參考資料: 自行翻譯
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