請幫忙翻譯關於微生物的英文(急)

1. Please describe the difference between protoplast and spheroplast. What would be the major purpose for making such cells? 2. Please compare and contrast the active transport and group translocation. 3. For E. coli mutant with defect on its ATPase, what would happen if the mutant were grown in a... 顯示更多 1. Please describe the difference between protoplast and spheroplast. What would be the major purpose for making such cells?
2. Please compare and contrast the active transport and group translocation.
3. For E. coli mutant with defect on its ATPase, what would happen if the mutant were grown in a medium with low pH such as pH 5.0? Please explain.
4. Please describe the functions of outer membrane and plasma membrane in Gram-negative bacteria.
5. Please compare the characteristics of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in terms of peptidoglycan layer, teichoic acid, outer membrane, toxin produced and lipopolysaccharide content. In your answer, please include the physiological role of the above components.
6. What is gluconeogenesis? For microorganism to carry this metabolic reaction, what irreversible steps of glycolysis must be overcome and what alternative bypass must be used?
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