have + pp, have been+ving 問題

have/has + pp

have/has been + pp / ving

Q1.

John is in class every morning from 9:00 to 12:00.

Two days ago, I called him at 11:30, but I could not reach him, because he "was attending" class at that time.

Q2.

Right now John is taking a nap. He "fell" asleeping an hour ago. He has been sleeping for an hour.

has been falling

Q3.

Q4.

Jane isn't here yet, I have been waiting for here since noon, but she still "hasn't arrived' .

Q5.

When my parents were teengers, people "didn't own" computers. By the time I was a teenager, I had owned a computer for several years.

Q6.

I never see snow.

I have never seen snow.

Q7.

By the time Bill goes to bed tomorrow, he will have had a full day and "will" be ready for sleep.

Q8.

A: How about Alice's Restaurant or the Gateway Cafe'? You decide.

B: Alice's Restaurant. I "will meet " you there around six.

Q9.

Classes start at 9:00 every day. It's 9:30 and the school bus is late.

When the bus gets to school, classes "will have begun" . The teacher "wil have been teaching" since 9:00.

Q10.

We washed the dishes and cleaned up the kitchen after our dinner guests "left".

Q11.

John is in my English class. He is studying English this semester. He "is also taking" some other classes. His classes begin at 9:00 every day.

2 個已更新項目:

Jaime is probably to be finished standing in the security line by 10:00 A.M. If he is finished at 10:00 A.M., he " will have been standing " in line for a total of two hours.

" " 是否可以換成 will have stood ?

3 個已更新項目:

another questions

1.

Jane isn't here yet. I have been waiting for her since noon, but she still " hasn't arrived "

" " 我是否可以改成 didn't arrive?

4 個已更新項目:

2.

Right now we " are having " a heat wave.

" " 我是否可以改成 have

4 個解答

• Kevin
Lv 7
1 0 年前
最佳解答

版主研究求知的精神很好, 不過文法固然重要, 語言的重點還是"語意", 當您覺得在文法上礙手礙腳, 不妨從語意著手.John is in class every morning from 9:00 to 12:00.

Two days ago, I called him at 11:30, but I could not reach him, because he "was attending" class at that time.

用was attending, 意思是

兩天前, 我在十一點半打電話給他, 但是找不到人. 因為當時他正在上課. A

兩天前, 我在十一點半打電話給他, 但是找不到人. 因為當時他已經在上課. B

文法上兩者都可以, 但是語意呢?

我想, 即使是以中文的角度來看, 選A的還是比較多吧?

完成式多半有明顯的比較意味, 表示兩個動作在時間上有落差, 而且這個落差必須彰顯, 才能讓讀者很清楚其間的關係. 您的這個句子並無這方面的必要性.

如果我換個例子, 就比較適合用完成式:

Two days ago, I called him at 11:30, but I could not reach him, because he had left home for his class.

兩天前, 我在十一點半打電話給他, 但是找不到人. 因為當時他已經出門去上課了.(待續)

2010-08-11 21:40:23 補充：

Right now John is taking a nap. He "fell" asleep an hour ago. He has been sleeping for an hour.

完成式另外一個重要的功能就是表達"帶狀(有明確的起點與終點)"的動作, 而簡單式則是表達"點狀"的動作.

從上面這個例子就可以看到明顯的對比.

an hour ago是一個時點, 應該用簡單式.

for an hour是一段時間, 應該用完成式或完成進行式.

而right now=now, 應該用進行式.

2010-08-11 21:40:55 補充：

Jane isn't here yet. I have been waiting for here since noon, but she still "hasn't arrived' .

同樣的, 這句的語意是說: 她"從中午到現在"都沒有到達, 是一段時間, 故用完成式而非簡單式.

When my parents were teenagers, people "didn't own" computers.

單純表達過去的狀態, 用簡單式. (既沒有兩個動作的先後關係, 也沒有一段明確的時間.)

敘述以前的經驗, 不能點出時間(when ...).

2010-08-11 21:41:02 補充：

像以下就可以:

Before they were mass produced, people had never owned computers.

(before ... 是無限長的時間)

(待續)

2010-08-12 23:07:36 補充：

I never see snow.

我不看雪.

簡單式代表"點". 現在簡單式代表從過去到現在(也意味著未來)的無限多"點".

I have never seen snow.

(從過去到現在)我未曾看過雪.

完成式代表"時段", 講經驗.

2010-08-12 23:08:00 補充：

By the time Bill goes to bed tomorrow, he will have had a full day and "will" be ready for sleep.

will可以省.

例子:

By the end of that day, he will have finished his spring clean-up and be at least \$29.99 richer than you.

http://smalltowngardener.com/2010/04/the-tool-shed...

2010-08-12 23:08:14 補充：

A: How about Alice's Restaurant or the Gateway Cafe'? You decide.

B: Alice's Restaurant. I "will meet " you there around six.

重點不在於"是不是馬上要去做".

will用來表達臨時起意的想法, 由對話的內容就可以看出來.

be going to V 用來表達經過主詞的計畫, "打算要...", 所以不適合此句(套用中文也一樣不適合).

2010-08-13 08:52:37 補充：

When the bus gets to school, classes "will have begun" . The teacher "wil have been teaching" since 9:00.

這兩個都是未來完成的型態, 差別是動詞本身的特性.

[begin]是瞬間動詞, 不適合用進行式.

[teach]是持續動詞, 才適合用進行式.

2010-08-13 08:52:56 補充：

We washed the dishes and cleaned up the kitchen after our dinner guests "left".

2010-08-13 08:53:11 補充：

John is in my English class. He is studying English this semester. He "is also taking" some other classes. His classes begin at 9:00 every day.

簡單式雖然代表"點", 但是如果不特別說明, 現在簡單式代表從無限遠的過去, 現在, 並隱含無限遠的未來. 所以我們會說

The sun rises from the East.

Ice melts in water.

您的句子並不是這樣的性質.

2010-08-13 08:53:39 補充：

另外, 進行式也可以表達最近在進行的事, 但是說話的當時並不見得正在發生:

He is studying English this semester.

他這學期在修英文.

但是當下他可能在打電動.

[over]

2010-08-18 11:14:16 補充：

可以換成 will have stood

• 1 0 年前

大迷糊你真正要發問的題目應該是下列兩種吧

1.have been pp

這種情況是現在完成被動式：句子本來是完成式，可是強調動作為被動狀態

2. have been ving

現在完成進行式，動作從過去持續到現在

參考資料： 文法書
• Louis
Lv 7
1 0 年前

Q1.

[說明]因為原句最後是at that time，強調在called的這個時間點上，attend的［過程］正在進行當中，所以用了was attending的過去進行式。called是在was attending這個線上的一個點。

had been attending的過去完成式，除了表示已有結果，還表示仍要繼續下去。會與本句的上下文不符。如果上下文是When I called him at 11:30, he had been attending the class for two and a half hours.才符邏輯。

Q2.

[說明］an hour ago是從現在往以前算的一個點，屬於過去，所以應用過去簡單式。has fallen, has been falling這兩個時態的時間座標都是現在，所以不能用。

Q3.

［說明］right now強調的是當下，但現在完成進行式還有繼續下去到未來的意思在內，不符只有當下的right now。所以只能接現在進行式。

Q4.

［說明］簡單過去式的didn't arrive座標是過去，意思不包含現在的狀況，如果上下文未說清楚，甚至還會有相反的暗示，表示他己經到了。

本句的時間座標是現在，只能用現在完成式，不能用過去簡單式來表示目前為止她仍未到。過去簡單式只能表示以前未發生。

Q5.

［說明］人們沒有電腦可用和我的雙親年少時，兩者是同時，均應用過去簡單式。通常只有在兩件有分先後的過去事實在同一句之中，在先的事實放在句子後面時，才會用到過去完成式。

Q6.

I never see snow.用了現在簡單式，表示這是timeless present的事實，不受時間影響而變化。意思是我個人的原則是不看雪。

I have never seen snow.用現在完成式，重點是結果。到目前為止，我都沒有親眼看見過雪。

Q7.

Q8.

[說明］問句是在問我的意願。所以只能用I will meet you來回答。從I am going to meet you中是無法看出意願，因為是單純地敘述將來的計劃，語意與問話不符。

Q9.

［說明一］classes will have begun是未來完成式，表示［結束］是重點。可以配合巴士到校的這個時間點。begin是一個點，不能用表示［過程尚未結束］的未來完成進行式，因為所有的進行式是一條線。

Q10.

［說明］加上before或after，從文意來表示先後時，兩事件用過去簡單式即可。

過去發生的兩件事，如不按時間順序敘述時，才用過去完成式。如：I lost the watch which my uncle had bought for me.先講的lost發生在bought之後，但先敘述。

My uncle bought a wtch for me and I lost it.這句按時序敘述，故bought不用完成式。（見pp.88-89 朗文新英文文法全集，兩件時間前後關係的用法）

Q11.

［說明］現在簡單式是與時間變化無關的。但他的選課只是和本學期有關，將來就不會這麼選了，所以不能換成現在簡單式的takes。

2010-08-18 12:53:38 補充：

新問題解說下:

1) will have been standing換成 will have stood在文法上是正確,但語意略有不同.因為前者有延續性,表示還在繼續下去.後者只有結果,算到10:00 a.m.為止.

2)這句的Jaime is to be finished和he is finished用被動式動詞,好像有問題.

應改成Jaime is to finish和he finishes才對.

2010-08-19 11:58:54 補充：

遠東新世紀英漢辭典(p.645)說明have在下列意思時，可用進行式。如下：

B2a.吃喝。He is having breakfast.

B4.經驗。I'm having trouble with the computer.

B5.舉行。We are having a picnic tomorrow.

2010-08-19 12:12:29 補充：

Right now we " are having " a heat wave.

屬經驗,可用進行式。

但不能用現在式。因為現在式是屬timeless present.必須不受時間的影響而變化。

暫時性的事性，因為時間性，不能用現在式。

補充的功能出現問題，無法繼續上傳。只能在此發表。

2010-08-19 12:15:08 補充：

遠東新世紀辭典還有另外的三個情況，have可用進行式。請參閱該辭典B6;B7;B9.說明。

• 1 0 年前

Q1...

John is in class every morning from 9:00 to 12:00.

Two days ago, I called him at 11:30, but I could not reach him, because he "was attending" class at that time.

我想是不行的 因為這個動作早已結束掉了 HAS BEEN VING 是強調進行至現在的句法

Q2...

Right now John is taking a nap. He "fell" asleeping an hour ago. He has been sleeping for an hour.

我覺得不能替換 因為這是過去進行式 這三句各式不同文法

Q3....

請問有Right now在句子裡面，我是否可以接have been ving呢，還是說我只能接be ving呢?

照道理說 是不行的

因為has been Ving 是指"過去某時"持續到現在!且強調"還在進行"

但是如果有接子句的話 可能又不一樣 或者前後文

Q4...

Jane isn't here yet, I have been waiting for here since noon, but she still "hasn't arrived' .

前文有HAVE BEEN WATING.....SINCE...後文有 STILL 抱歉這個答案須用HAS+P.P

節前幾題 has been ving 的句法在這句就適用 因為從中午等....等到現在並持續中

這就符合規定了

Q5...

When my parents were teengers, people "didn't own" computers. By the time I was a teenager, I had owned a computer for several years.

其實可以替換 只是如果這提出在翻譯 那就不行 因為一斯有些微不同

Q6....

其實呢...兩句的意思在中文上是一樣的

只是英文寫法不同

或者音場景不同 所以用法不同

例如 問A有無看過雪 他回答一.二都可

但是現在下雪了 問B 他是不是用驚訝的神情回答二 比較有感覺呢?

兩者...小差別

Q7....

By the time Bill goes to bed tomorrow, he will have had a full day and "will" be ready for sleep.

依我個人想法 應該是沒錯吧...

Q8....

A: How about Alice's Restaurant or the Gateway Cafe'? You decide.

B: Alice's Restaurant. I "will meet " you there around six.

是得大大 這句換了是沒關係 因為同樣是未來式

雖然意思就如你所說有些許差異 但是依文法看 是對的

Q9...??

Q10...摁0.0

Q11...

John is in my English class. He is studying English this semester. He "is also taking" some other classes. His classes begin at 9:00 every day.

這裡用進行是會好點 因為前後文的關係

他前面說 有上英文課了對吧

但是他又"同時進行"著其他的事情 所以...進行

抱歉我程度不夠 也不一定比版主好

但是我努力了!!!

有些我還未教 回答不出來

我會請教我的英文老師幫我解答 最快1天後會幫你回復補充

希望大大能先笑納 !!!!!!^^

2010-08-10 14:15:24 補充：

大大我寄給你!我外文老師回我了 不過是英文噢 9.10題的補充

2010-08-21 18:50:39 補充：

抱歉我字數過多 我用寄的

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