genki
Lv 7
genki 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 9 年前

請問語言學概論這兩個詞的字義分別是什麼?

請問語言學概論這兩個詞的字義分別是什麼?

1.island constraints

2.Delayed release

可以用英文幫我解釋字義 或是舉例說明嗎? 謝謝

2 個解答

評分
  • Shin
    Lv 4
    9 年前
    最佳解答

    1. Island constraints: restrictions on the path between filler and gap.There are three major island constraints listed in the following.The sentence with star mark is incorrect.- Complex NP constraintl Emily paid a visit to the senator that wants to hire who?l *Who did Emily pay a visit to the senator that wants to hire__?u Miss Marple asked Sherlock whether Poirot had solved the crime.u Who did Miss Marple ask __whether Poirot had solved the crime?u *Who did Miss Marple ask Sherlock whether__had solved the crime?u *What did Miss Marple ask Sherlock whether Poirot had solved__? - Genitive case constraintl Sam Spade insulted the fat man’s henchman.l Who did Sam Spade insult?l Whose henchman did Sam Spade insult?l *Whose did Sam Spade insult henchman?- Adjunct constraintl John ate bologna and cheese.l John ate bologna with cheese.l *What did John eat bologna and?l What did John eat bologna with?2. Delayed release is also called affricate so you can find the answer in definition of affricates. The following is the definition of affricates in the Wiki.Affricates are consonants that begin as stops but release as fricatives rather than directly into the following vowel, as either of the ch- sounds in church and the j- in joy. It is also used to distinguish affricates from plosives (stops). If you have any questions about my answer, please feel free to ask.

  • 9 年前

    island constraint我不是很清楚,稍微查了一下資料是這樣,屬於句法學的範籌

    island在語言學上指的是句子中一塊獨立的區域

    我們知道在chomsky的理論裡,英文的wh疑問句先有一個跟直述句一樣的底層結構,再經由轉換(transformation)將疑問詞提前產生問句。像:

    Mary should eat what.

    → Should Mary eat what.

    → What should mary eat?

    但是這樣的轉換不是任意的,例如維基上舉的例子:

    You went home because you needed to do what?

    *What did you go home because you needed to do?

    因為連接詞because的兩邊是獨立的"島",限制了what的移動

    這是我查到有關island constraint相關的東西

    delay release是phonetics的範圍

    一般的塞音像是 t,是先用舌頭堵住氣流再釋放,或像 b 是用雙唇

    然而有時候釋放的不那麼完全,而是產生其他的音

    像是ㄘ的音,在氣流打通之後還持續有摩擦(s)

    或是像Hitler裡面,t 在舌頭堵住之後不是直接打開,而是兩邊下垂產生 l 的音

    這樣的特徵就是delay release,在國語、英語(或大多數的語言)就是擦塞音(affricate)

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