Fang 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 1 0 年前

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全國百萬人罷工

與別國領導人相比,法國總統似乎多了一項特殊的頭疼事,那就是一年內至少一兩次的全國大罷工,而近年來罷工規模越來越大。一月二十九日,法國八大工會在法 國各地發動了近二百起抗議政府經濟政策的罷工遊行。據法國勞工總會統計,有二百五十萬人參加了各類抗議活動(儘管內政部公佈人數為一百零八萬),使之成為 薩爾科齊上任以來規模最大的全國性罷工。

據悉,由於半年前薩爾科齊用《最低限服務法》來約束罷工,這次全國五百萬公共服務業職工中的 23%參與了罷工,三分之一的教師罷課,23%的電力員工離開 了崗位,40%的鐵路員工沒上班,銀行關閉,郵件堆積如山沒人派發。但在巴黎城內,約四分之三的地鐵繼續運作,85%的巴士和所有電車及機場穿梭服務都保 持正常。傳媒事前宣佈的「黑色星期四」並沒有變成現實,大罷工並不像過去那樣導致交通癱瘓,70%多的民眾表示支援此次罷工。

雖然相比於冰島、英國等國,法國在全球危機中的損失不算最大,但金融危機的確對法國實體經濟帶來巨大負面影響,不少企業裁員倒閉,於是喜歡罷工的法國民眾 選擇了走上街頭來表達對時局的不滿。截至去年十一月底統計,法國失業人數已達二百零六點八萬人。歐盟委員會近來發佈的經濟預測報告認為,二零零九年法國經 濟衰退明顯,經濟增幅將是-1.8%,失業率也將攀升至9.8%。

有人說法國人是世界上活得最優雅、最舒服的人群之一。擁有六千一百七十萬人口的法國人,每週工作三十五個小時,全年工作時間只一千五百八十七小時,每年還有五星期的有薪假期,七成的上班族外出度假。人們每天午餐休息一點五小時,晚上來杯葡萄酒,孩子上學從幼兒園到高中都不用花錢,看病也不要錢,男性平均壽命七十五點六歲,女性八十二點九歲。人均GDP二點五萬歐元,是中國的十多倍以上。

法國有句順口溜:「春天工作,夏天度假,秋天罷工,冬天過節。」一般每年九月至隔年四月是法國罷工潮的旺季,其中十月是高峰,因為那時適逢國會復會討論來年財政預算,工人們想趁此爭取更多福利,遂以罷工來施壓。

法國人罷工名目繁多,勞動法上有專門的定義。如警告性罷工(即短時間停止工作);「瓶頸」式罷工(專門選擇要害部門或要害時間停止工作);輪流式罷工(企業內不同部門或工種輪流罷工);還有聲援性罷工(為支援其他行業或企業的罷工),絕大多數罷工的目的是增加工資、減少勞動時間、改善工作環境等。

法國也不是從一開始就允許罷工的,如一七九一年法律明確禁止同業結社,一八六四年才承認結社權,直到二戰結束後,罷工權才被法律正式確認,一九四六年法國第四共和國憲法序言規定,「罷工權在法律規定的範圍內行使」。於是罷工不再僅僅是勞資衝突的劇烈表現,而上升為公民的法定權利。

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1 個解答

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  • 1 0 年前
    最佳解答

    Million people nationwide strike

    Compared with the leaders of other countries, the French president seems more of a particular headache, and that is at least twice a year nationwide strike, strike, increasing scale in recent years. January 29, the French launched the eight parts of trade unions in France for nearly two hundred from the strike to protest government economic policies parade. According to the French Federation of Labor Statistics, there are 2.5 million people participated in various protest activities (although the number of Ministry of Interior announced 1.08 million), making it the largest since Sarkozy took office nationwide strike.

    It is learned that six months ago, Mr Sarkozy of "minimum service laws" to constrain the strike, this country of five million public service workers participated in the strike to 23%, one third of the teachers strike, 23% of employees left the Power jobs, 40% of the railway workers did not work, the closure of bank, mail piling up that no one distribution. But in Paris the city, about three-quarters of the subway continue to operate 85% of all trams and buses and airport shuttle services remain normal. Media prior announcement of "Black Thursday" did not become a reality, does not strike as in the past led to traffic gridlock, more than 70% of the public supported the strike.

    2010-10-04 10:53:51 補充:

    Although compared to Iceland, the United Kingdom and other countries, France, the loss of the global crisis is not the biggest, but the French financial crisis of enormous negative impact on the real economy,

    2010-10-04 10:54:37 補充:

    many companies lay off close down, so like the strike of the French people have chosen to go the streets to express dissatisfaction with the current situation. As of the end of November last year, statistics, unemployment in France has reached 2.068 million people.

    2010-10-04 10:59:25 補充:

    後面的的我寄到你的信箱(不夠寫)

    2010-10-05 19:59:40 補充:

    我裡面有修該一些啦

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