The narrative skills of each child were assessed at ages 8 and 9 using the picture book Frog, Where Are You? by Mercer Mayer (1969), which has been studied extensively in numerous investigations with children and adults (Berman & Slobin, 1994). The book’s illustrations depict a boy’s alarm and disappointment at discovering that his pet frog has escaped, followed by a relatively complicated series of attempts to locate the frog and the boy’s eventual reunion with his pet.
At age 8 and age 9, each child was asked to preview the book silently and
then to “tell the story, page by page” as he or she paged through the book. At age 9, each child was then asked to narrate the story again in a supported telling condition, which was designed to elicit comments about characters’ emotions, characters’ speech, and causal connectors. The children were introduced to the three types of evaluative comments prior to their second telling of the story. If the child did not spontaneously mention the evaluative information targeted on a given page, the experimenter prompted him using a predetermined protocol of questions and statements (e.g., “I wonder what the boy is saying to those frogs.”). There were five probes for each type of evaluative comment. The child was asked about how the boy was feeling when he looked at his frog (p. 1), when he saw the empty jar (p. 3), when he saw the dog fall out the window (p. 7), when he was carried off by the deer (p. 18), and when he found more frogs (p. 27). Causal explanations were elicited for the events of the jar breaking (p. 7), the boy covering his nose (p. 11), the dog running from the bees (p. 15), the boy and dog falling off the cliff (pp. 20–21), and the boy holding his hand to his ear (p. 23). Character speech was probed for the boy calling the frog (p. 5), calling the mole (p. 11), calling the frog in a tree (p. 13), calling the frog from a rock (p. 17), and waving to the frog family (pp. 28–29).
- 10 年前最佳解答
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- 10 年前