米花兒 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 9 年前

形容詞子句 省略關代 簡化成分詞片語

請問大家,

形容詞子句在非限定用法時,也可以像限定用法一樣省略關代(受詞)嗎?

同樣是在非限定用法時,也可以簡化成分詞片語嗎?

是不是都跟限定用法一樣?

煩請補充例句喔~感謝~~

已更新項目:

很感謝大家的回答:)

我得到一些結論,如果有錯誤請更正~~

非限定用法是不能省略關代。

簡化的部份,先行詞在子句中為被動時常常可以改為分詞片語的形式。

主動時如果不影響句意的判斷仍可以改為分詞片語(但是不好?)

John, (who is) sitting over there, is my boyfriend.

作為受格時(先行詞與子句的主詞不同)是保持完整的子句。

John, whom I loved once, is no longer with me.

Q: 請問若要改為分詞片語,是必定省略掉動詞前面的所有的詞嗎?

2 個已更新項目:

我對回覆的句子有疑問:

I have a girl friend, loving her very much.

這句原句如果是I have a girl friend, and I love her very much. 但是就變成是副詞子句簡化的分詞構句(前後句主詞相同可省)是嗎?

如果要表達"我有一個我很愛的女朋友",這種時候就不會是非限定用法了吧?

John smiled and nodded, which astonished me. => 這種句子能改為分詞片語嗎?

3 個已更新項目:

[Poisonous substances from the microbes rose into the sky], sending most living things to their deaths.

我有兩種想法:

1. [], and it send most living things to their deaths.(副詞子句簡化分詞構句)

2. [], which sends most living things to their deaths.(形容詞子句簡化分詞片語)

註明: 礙於字數,[]即原句括號的部份。

翻譯起來差不多,請問兩種都可以簡化成原句子嗎?

6 個解答

評分
  • 9 年前
    最佳解答

    關代非限定用法不能省略。 只有在少數情況下,能簡化成分詞片語。

    [形容詞子句在非限定用法時,也可以像限定用法一樣省略關代(受詞)嗎?]

    不行!

    1. 關代在非限定用法當主詞時,若省略,後面的子句會缺主詞,也缺連接詞。例如:

    Give this to John, who will give you a receipt.

    將這個給約翰,他會給你一張收據。 (who 是will give 的主詞)

    若省略 who,變成:

    Give this to John, will give you a receipt. (X)

    這個句子變成有兩個動詞 give 和 will give, 卻沒有連接詞。所以錯。

    2. 關代在非限定用法當受詞時,若省略,後面的及物動詞就會缺受詞,也缺連接詞。

    Give this to John, whom you saw yesterday.

    將這個給約翰,你昨天見到的那個人。 (whom 是 saw 的受詞)

    省略 whom,變成:

    Give this to John, you saw yesterday. (X)

    這時前後兩子句,卻沒有連接詞。 saw 的受詞也沒了,那是看見什麼呢?

    所以非限定用法的關代是不能省略的。

    [同樣是在非限定用法時,也可以簡化成分詞片語嗎?]

    1. 關代引導的子句當主詞,而且用來補充說明全句的主詞,有時可以改成分詞片語,但這不表示句子會更漂亮。若放在句後用來補充說明句子的受詞,就不行。例如:

    John, who works part-time, cannot afford a car.

    約翰,他打半工,買不起車。 (who 是 works 的主詞)

    可以簡化為:

    John, working part-time, cannot afford a car.

    約翰打半工,買不起車。

    這時把分詞片語提到句首,就成了分詞構句,有了「由於」的意思,還是明顯可以看出 working part-time 是講 John,沒有問題。

    Working part-time, John cannot afford a car.

    由於打半工,約翰買不起車。

    2. 當關係子句出現在句尾時,就不行了,看例句:

    Give this to John, who is over there.

    將這個給約翰,他在那兒。

    Give this to John, being over there. (X)

    being over there 在這裡語意不清,因為不知道講的是誰。你看將 being over there 提到句首,感覺會變成什麼?

    Being over there, (you) give this to John.

    因為在那裏,(你)將這個給約翰。

    誰在那裡?這時變成「你」在那裡,不是約翰在那裡。所以不能這樣簡化,語意會不清。

    3. 關代當受詞時,不可以簡化為分詞片語。

    John, whom I loved once, is no longer with me.

    約翰,我曾愛過的那個人,不再跟我在一起了。

    John, loved once, is no longer with me. (?)

    John, loving once, is no longer with me. (X)

    很明顯,要改為分詞,連關代所引導的主詞 I 都要省略。這時,改成 loving 是絕對錯了,變成「約翰愛過」,愛誰呢?而 loved once 會變成被愛,被誰愛呢?無法看出原來 「我所愛」 的意思,所以不行。

    類似上面的例句,如果像 2 所說,關代是當主詞,子句是被動,那就可以簡化成過去分詞片語,這就是經常看到的省略「關代+be動詞」:

    John, who was killed in an accident, is no longer with me.

    約翰,他在意外中死亡,不再與我在一起了。

    John, killed in an accident, is no longer with me. (○)

    解釋很長,慢慢多看兩回,體會一下就明白了。

    2011-03-30 07:30:13 補充:

    請教樓上:

    I have a girl friend, loving her very much.

    分詞片語修飾誰?誰愛誰呀?

    2011-03-30 13:45:01 補充:

    Cavalier,

    歡迎討論! 有例句甚好,感謝!

    Give this to John, who is over there.

    = Give this to John over there. (常用)

    你自評「常用」的第二句,over there 不是分詞片語。版主要知道的是「簡化為分詞片語可以嗎?」你說,簡化為 Give this to John, being over there. 可以嗎?

    板主也想知道「可以像限定用法受格,省略關係代名詞嗎?」,你說,省略關係代名 who,成為:

    Give this to John, is over there. 可以嗎?

    2011-03-30 13:46:59 補充:

    下面兩句,沒錯,雖結齒坳牙,但是可以。可我在回答中不是說了嗎?

    -->『關代是當主詞,子句是被動,那就可以簡化成過去分詞片語,這就是經常看到的省略「關代+be動詞」』

    你這句,Give this to John seen by you yesterday. 不是來自 Give this to John, who was seen by you yesterday. 嗎?不是省略 「who+be動詞」嗎?是省略 whom 嗎?

    2011-03-30 13:47:55 補充:

    你那句 John, loved by me once, is no longer with me. 不是來自 John, who was loved by me once, is no longer with me. 嗎?不是省略 「who+be動詞」嗎?是省略 whom 嗎?

    你舉這兩例是在反駁我?還是支持我?

    請問關係代名詞當主詞,表示主動的 whom you saw yesterday 可以直接改成主動分詞片語嗎?

    請問關係代名詞,表示主動的 whom I loved once 可以改成主動分詞片語嗎?

    2011-03-30 13:54:04 補充:

    呆子,謝謝參與討論。雖然你是對板主說話,但請容許我多嘴。

    你第一句,省略哪個關代?如果你說的是後面部份,原本有 which 指前面 John smiled and nodded,那是省略了「which +be動詞」,而不是板主問的「省略關係代名詞」。假如僅省略關代 which:

    John smiled and nodded, was a fact which astonished me. 或簡化為

    John smiled and nodded, being a fact which astonished me.

    這樣可以嗎?

    2011-03-30 13:56:25 補充:

    其實,你這句話連 a fact 都不要,什麼都不省略:

    John smiled and nodded, which astonished me.

    不是最好嗎?

    你第二句,The house, built of grey brick, belongs to me. 來自 The house, which was built of grey brick, belongs to me. 就如同我回答中說的,關代當主詞,被動式,可以省略「關代+be 動詞」,簡化成過去分詞片語。

    2011-03-30 14:05:31 補充:

    更正,更正 005 最後第二段錯字,「主」--> 「受」:

    請問關係代名詞當「受」詞,表示主動的 whom you saw yesterday 可以直接改成主動分詞片語嗎?

    2011-03-30 14:21:54 補充:

    到目前,意見欄的五個例子,可以拿來補充說明,滿好。你看那些例子都是省略 「關代+be動詞」。還沒有人能說 「關代非限定用法,能像限定用法受格一般省略」,到目前為止,可以證明是不可以的。

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  • 6 年前

    到下面的網址看看吧

    ▶▶http://candy5660601.pixnet.net/blog

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  • 8 年前

    分詞片語放在句後可以用來補充說明句子受詞的例子:

    We saw Jim walking up the street. (=We saw Jim while he was walking up the street)

    分詞片語也能出現出現在句尾時的例子:

    The boat struck a rock, throwing the crew into the sea.

    2012-05-10 18:55:19 補充:

    這樣也通阿

    Mr. Brown has two sons, living in Taipei. (同位語)

    = Mr. Brown has two sons, who live in Taipei.

    = Mr. Brown has two sons, and they live in Taipei.

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  • 呆子
    Lv 7
    9 年前

    1.John smiled and nodded,a fact which astonished me.

    2.the house,built of grey brick,belongs to me.

    你的提問均正確,還有很多例子----------

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  • 9 年前

    To LionEnglish大

    Give this to John, whom you saw yesterday.

    = Give this to John seen by you yesterday.(很少這樣說,但文法上正確)

    Give this to John, who is over there.

    = Give this to John over there. (常用)

    John, whom I loved once, is no longer with me.

    = John, loved by me once, is no longer with me. (很少這樣說,但文法上正確)

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  • rhody
    Lv 7
    9 年前

    關係代名詞受格在非限定用法和介詞後不可省略 , 但可以簡化成分詞片語‧

    I have a girl friend, who I love very much.

    = I have a girl friend, and I love her very much.

    = I have a girl friend, loving her very much.

    前後主詞 I 相同,連帶 and 省略,動詞加-ing 即變成分詞構句

    省略 who 等於省略 and 和 her,會變成一個兩句用逗點隔開卻無連接詞又無受詞的情況,故關係代名詞受格在非限定用法不可省略 ‧

    關係代名詞受格在非限定用法和介詞後不可省略看這裡 ,

    但可以簡化成分詞片語看這裡‧

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