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Anna 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 9 年前

急需!!! 語言學高手!!!!!!! 今天"40點"!!

Here are some Japanese verb forms given in a broad phonetic transcription. They represent two styles (informal and formal) of present-tense verbs. Morphemes are separated by +.

Gloss informal formal

Call yob+u yob+imasu

Write kak+u kak+imasu

Eat tabe+ru tabe+masu

See mi+ru mi+masu

Leave da+ru de+imasu

Go out dekake+ru dekake+masu

Die ʃin+u ʃin+imasu

Close ʃime+ru ʃime+masu

Swindle kata+ru kate+imasu

Wear ki+ru ki+masu

Read yom+u yom+imasu

Lend kas+u kaʃ+imasu

Wait mats+u matʃ+imasu

Press os+u oʃ+imasu

Apply ate+u ate+masu

Drop otos+u otoʃ+imasu

Have mots+u motʃ+imasu

Win kats+u katʃ+imasu

Steal a lover neto+ru neto+imasu

a. List each of the Japanese verb roots in their phonemic representations.

c. There is more than one allomorph for the suffix designating formality and more than one for the suffix designating informality. List the allomorphs of each. Formulate the rule or rules for their distribution.

P.S 我需要英文詳解!!!!! 如果沒辦法的話,中文也是可以的!!!! (急!!!!!)

如果是英文的話贈 40 點, 中文 30 點 拜託~~~ 感謝~~~~~~

2 個解答

評分
  • 匿名使用者
    9 年前
    最佳解答

    a.

    Call: /job/

    Write: /kak/

    Eat: /tabe/

    See: /mi/

    Leave: /de/

    Go out: /dekake/

    Die: /ʃin/

    Close: /ʃime/

    Swindle:/katar/

    Wear: /ki/

    Read: /jom/

    Lend: /kas/

    Wait: /mats/

    Press: /os/

    Apply: /ate/

    Drop: /otos/

    Have: /mots/

    Win: /kats/

    Steal a lover:/neto/

    c.

    (1)The allomorphs of the suffix disignating "formality"

    (i) "masu"

    (ii) "imasu"

    (2)The allomorphs of the suffix disignating "informality"

    (i) "u"

    (ii) "ru"

    (3)The rules:

    (i) If a verb root ends with an vowel("i" or "e"),

    "masu" will be used to disignate "formality",

    and "ru" will be used to disignate "formality."

    (ii) If a verb root ends with a consonant,

    "imasu" will be used to disignate "formality",

    and "u" will be used to disignate "formality."

    [Note]:If a verb root ends with "s,"

    " the "s" should be transformed into "ʃ" in advance

    before the suffix "imasu" or "u" is added.

    註:你swindle(騙る)的root的mopheme打錯了

    2011-05-05 18:54:36 補充:

    抱歉,我(3)的(i)和(ii)的第三行,應該把formality改成informality

    說明:(你可以對照我(2)的部份)

    masu和imasu是formality

    ru和u是informailty

    2011-05-05 19:43:51 補充:

    勘誤:

    1. 我把 dEsignate 拼錯了

    2. c. (3) (1)的第三行:and "ru".....最後面應該是"INformaty"

     c. (3) (2) 的第三行:and "u".....最後面應該是"INformaty"

    3. c. (3) (2) [Note]的最後一行:before...."imasu" or "u"...→把or "u" 刪掉

    只有+imasu的時候才需要把s改成ʃ

    2011-05-05 19:45:53 補充:

    勘誤:

    1. 我把 dEsignate 拼錯了

    2. c. (3) (1)的第三行:and "ru".....最後面應該是"INformaty"

     c. (3) (2) 的第三行:and "u".....最後面應該是"INformaty"

    3. c. (3) (2) [Note]的最後一行:before...."imasu" or "u"...→把or "u" 刪掉

    只有+imasu的時候才需要把s改成ʃ

    2011-05-05 23:32:43 補充:

    回morisent大大:

    leave的informal形式是「deru」沒錯,root並沒有變,

    「da」是發問者拼錯了。

    2011-05-05 23:45:23 補充:

    而leave的formal形式是「demasu」不是「deimasu」

    其實一般台灣人學日文

    並不是用這種拼寫方式和變化規則來學動詞的conjugation,

    所以乍看之下其實非常不習慣

    另外,因為我沒有學過語音學

    如果morisent大對我的回答有任何建議也煩請賜教^^

    2011-05-05 23:53:16 補充:

    再更正:(補充回答有字數限制,我打不進去了)

    a. 的最後一個單字steal a lover(寝取る)的root改成/netor/

    其實發問者也打錯了,informal是netor+u,formal是netor+imasu

    參考資料: 我自己打的。我沒受過語言學相關訓練,不過我想應該沒錯。若其他人有不同意見也歡迎討論。, 有時候補充的回答好像會被知識+吃掉,我會補貼在意見欄
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  • MB.WPG
    Lv 5
    9 年前

    To 靖大

    個人沒學過日文,想請教一下Leave這個字,當它為root時是de,為什麼當它動詞化時,前面會是da而不是reduplicate原字根?其他的轉音部份s-sh可以看的出來,因為有其他的可以比較,但是搞不清楚為什麼這邊需要轉音?還是只是發問者打錯而已?

    謝謝

    2011-05-06 04:52:51 補充:

    瞭解,非常專業的回答

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