lf2iswhat 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 9 年前

英文問題---exclude except besides

在我小小的認知裡:

1.受詞不計在內的排除

except (for) = excluding = save = but = other than

2.受詞包括在內,有補充意思的排除

besides = as well as = in addition to = along with = no less than = together with = plus = including = on top of

3.兩種用法皆可,須由前後文決定

aside from = apart from

Q1:

http://tw.knowledge.yahoo.com/question/question?qi...

最佳解答與我的認知多處不同,請解惑。

Q2:

Pets are not allowed in here excepting guide dogs.

老師說excepting = except = ,excluding

何以excluding前要加逗號?

He wrote an article regarding(=concerning) environmental pollution.

regarding和concerning與excluding同樣都是現在分詞當介係詞,卻不用加逗號?

Q3:

有文法書說,but做「除了」解釋,可以當作連接詞,列兩例句如下:

An hour late for dinner, he couldn't sit down but circled the long dining room table.

He does everything in the house but put the children to bed.

這兩句but後面,第一句用過去,第二句卻用原型,原因何在?

該文法書在其他篇章又說:but後面其實是省略to的不定詞,當有do在前面時,to常被省略,但非強制,並列舉許多例子,其中又包括例句2,這不就違背連接詞前後須平行對稱的要求,而認定例句2之but在此句其實是做介係詞,後接不定詞做受詞?

已更新項目:

感謝天魔小雲的回答,Q3是摘自 英文常見問題大詞典(趙振才著)

從該書的多篇相關論述約可總結出兩點

1.表例外的兩詞彙but及except可與「帶to的不定詞」、「不帶to的不定詞」及「動名詞」連用,惟but接動名詞較罕見。

至於but/except的詞性是介係詞還是連接詞,語言學家沒一致的結論。

2.but/except前若有動詞do則to可選擇性省略;若是其他動詞則to不可省。

2 個已更新項目:

但許多參考書明確給出了一套公式

do nothing but V(R)

choose/expect/want/desire nothing but to V(R)

be interested in nothing but 動名詞/名詞

enjoy nothing but 動名詞/名詞

其解釋方法正如您所說,都將but視為對等連接詞,並拆成兩句來分析。

前有do時究竟是可省還是必省就留待後人探討,至少目前我遇過的英文考題,依循這公式答案都是對的。

1 個解答

評分
  • 最佳解答

    您好,有關於您提出的問題,您也是英文版的高手,故不敢言回答,但我們可以來討論一番:

    Q1:

    http://tw.knowledge.yahoo.com/question/question?qi...

    最佳解答與我的認知多處不同,請解惑。

    exclude 是不包含、排除...的,這篇回答顯然有誤。

    Q2:

    Pets are not allowed in here excepting guide dogs.

    老師說excepting = except = ,excluding

    何以excluding前要加逗號?

    He wrote an article regarding(=concerning) environmental pollution.

    regarding和concerning與excluding同樣都是現在分詞當介係詞,卻不用加逗號?

    這很簡單,因為except和excepting都有連接詞用法,原句:

    Pets are not allowed in here except/excepting (that) guide dogs (are).

    而excluding只有介係詞用法,若您要用後位修飾法的話,就應該直接接在主詞後,如:

    Pets excluding guide dogs are not allowed in here.

    如果採用不加逗點的話,那麼excluding修飾的就變成here了,這樣會造成語意不清,例如:

    Smoking is not allowed in this park excluding disignated areas. ... ( X )

    在造具的時候,只要把excluding 替換成 exclusive of 文藝仍然通順的話,這個句子大抵是正確的。例如:

    Pets excluding guide dogs are not allowed in here. 

    = Pets exclusive of guide dogs are not allowed in here.

    Q3:

    有文法書說,but做「除了」解釋,可以當作連接詞,列兩例句如下:

    An hour late for dinner, he couldn't sit down but circled the long dining room table.

    He does everything in the house but put the children to bed.

    這兩句but後面,第一句用過去,第二句卻用原型,原因何在?

    該文法書在其他篇章又說:but後面其實是省略to的不定詞,當有do在前面時,to常被省略,但非強制,並列舉許多例子,其中又包括例句2,這不就違背連接詞前後須平行對稱的要求,而認定例句2之but在此句其實是做介係詞,後接不定詞做受詞?

    第一句我想並沒有什麼問題,but為對等連接詞,前後詞組必須有等位關係,若微動詞則需時太一致。

    我們可以把它寫成:

    He couldn't sit down.

    (But) He circled the long dining table.

    主詞重複,故兩句合併時省略he。

    第二句,還記得一種句型嗎:

    All he does is (to) Vr.

    沒錯,當前方有助動詞出線後,後方動詞語可作為does語意上的受詞(故需用原型)。而這兩句拆開來變成:

    He does everything.

    He does not put the children to bed.

    跟上面那句不同的是,這句重複的不只是主詞he,連does也重複出現了,故用but合併時,省略掉的是"he does",所以後方才能直接加上原形。(這樣用跟but沒有太大關係。

    而您提到的but後方加不定詞片語,to可以省略是另外一種用法。

    例如:My goal is not to win the game but (to) learn from it.

     

    圖片參考:http://a.imagehost.org/0959/01-1.jpg

    希望我的回答有幫助到您,若有任何疑問歡迎再度提出,感激不盡!!

    2011-07-26 15:48:38 補充:

    typo:抱歉幾個錯字:

    ......造"句"的......

    ......文"意"仍然......

    ......若"為"動詞......

    ......時"態"大抵......

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