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雷公 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 9 年前


,Below, beneath, under, underneath ,over on above 區分

1 個解答

  • PONY
    Lv 7
    9 年前

    這是個很短的問題,然而想要細窺全貌,卻要花費滿長的篇幅來答覆。原則上,就針對這幾字「位置介系詞」的功能,個人參考COCA Corpus (現代美語資料語庫),將分析結果說明如下: 一、按照使用頻率的高低,依序分別是 under, over, below, above, beneath, underneath。 二、over (under) (一般文法也是將它們視為同一組)1. over - 除be動詞外,尚可搭配其它動詞和over形成搭配語詞 (collocation),例: The picture is over the fireplace.The lamp hung over the table.He leaned over the table/counter/rail. She wore a jacket over her sweater.Over the body lay a thin white sheet. 2. under - 除be動詞外,尚可搭配其它動詞和under形成搭配語詞 (collocation),例:The men were looking at something under the body of the carDark circles hung under his eyes. Thick gold chains hung over the white T-shirt he wore under a black leather jacket. 3. under - under 後較常接的名詞有下列,雖然也可用 beneath, below 取代,但頻率上仍以under最高,beneath次之,below和underneath殿後:Under (beneath/below) sun/moon/sky/cloud/star/Venus…(日月、星球、天空)Under (beneath/below) the water(s)/sea/ocean…(水面、海洋)Under (beneath/below) the earth/soil/ground…(地表、土壤)Under (beneath/below) a (the) pine(palm)/tree…(樹木)Under (beneath/below) a (the) table/desk/chair…(家俱)Under (beneath/below) a (the) bed/window/floor…(家俱、窗、地板)Under (beneath/below) a (the) sheet/blanket/quilt…(寢具)Under (beneath/below) a (the) jacket/hat/cap/hood…(衣物)- 特定的慣用語,例: Sb is under the weather (心情不佳或身體欠安)- 但碰到surface時,使用頻率(由高至低) 卻變成 beneath (the) surface, below(the) surface , under (the) surface,underneath (the) surface。- 另一個情境就是,某人居高處,往下俯看地面活動時 (不能用under me) : Just beneath (below/underneath) me, jubilant fans are cheering to the racers. 4. over - 後較常接的名詞有下列,雖然也可用 above 取代,但頻率上仍以over為高:over (above) sun/moon/sky/cloud/star/Venusover (above) the water(s)/sea/ocean…over (above) the earth/soil/surface….over (above) a (the) pine(palm)/tree….over (above) a (the) table/desk/chair/fireplace…over (above)a (the) bed/window/floor/fence….over (above) a (the) sheet/blanket/quilt…over (above) a (the) jacket/hat/cap/hood… - 但碰到ground時,使用頻率(由高至低) 卻變成 above (the) ground, over (the) ground。


    2011-07-26 13:06:20 補充:

    三、above (below) (一般文法也是將它們視為同一組) 的搭配語詞 (collocation) 有別於其它用字不同處:

    - above/below (the) average 在某平均值、水平之上(下)

    The figures show that Jews in New York committed crimes at a rate far below the average for the wider society.

    2011-07-26 13:07:04 補充:

    - above/below a(the) level(s) 高(低)於某標準

    China's per-person energy use and greenhouse gas emissions remain far below levels found in richer countries.

    2011-07-26 13:08:01 補充:

    - 論文學術研究報告提到上(下)述的相關名詞之前,常用 the above(below) + N:

    articles, analysis, example, question, studies, research, description, factors, findings, issues, estimates, projections, categories, cases, comments, definition, model, statement, data …

    2011-07-26 13:10:49 補充:

    The above discussion also provides us with a somewhat altered perspective on the Susanna. As the above examples suggest, time is a reconstruction of the brain.

    2011-07-26 13:11:19 補充:

    - 提到高(低)於某金額(百分比)、通膨等可計量數字,:常用above(below) $...(%):As desktop PC prices fell steadily, to below $1,000, comparable laptops hovered around $5,000.

    For decades, the typical college graduate's wage rose well above inflation.

    2011-07-26 13:11:39 補充:


    1. 有慣用搭配語詞時,就要配合使用,不得任意替換,例: to hang over(under), to lean over, to wear over (under)和第三大項有關below(above)專用的搭配語。

    2. 除非有特別情境,如「由高處往地面鳥瞰」,其餘 就用英美人士使用頻率最高over(under) 這一組,就八、九不離十了。

    參考資料: American Corpus 英美最具國際信譽資料語庫
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