維敏 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 9 年前

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From a clinical perspective, we can also take steps toward improving the psychosocial care of patients with head and neck cancer. A psychosocial screening intervention is an effective way to identify patients who are interested in obtaining formal psychosocial counseling and may result in improved physical and mental health outcomes for these patients.[91] Furthermore, family practitioners are often assigned the task of targeting and addressing patients’ physical and psychosocial needs after they are discharged from the hospital or cancer center. While many cancer survivors discuss physical rehabilitation with their family physician, fewer feel comfortable presenting psychosocial concerns such as their fear of recurrence or social and family problems.[92] Thus, health care providers need to continue to proactively assess the psychosocial needs of cancer survivors and intervene appropriately.

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Few studies have been conducted to empirically test the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for adults with visible differences. Even fewer have examined interventions for cancer populations. One study specific to head and neck cancer patients is identified in Table 1

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Studies that have been conducted have examined interventions such as self-help materials, cognitive behavioral therapy, group-based person-centered therapy, social skills training, and support groups but have not adequately demonstrated the clinical effectiveness of these interventions.

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Despite this, social support is seen as an important factor in alleviating the emotional distress and social dysfunction experienced by patients with facial disfigurement.

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Patients look to the reaction of family and friends to gauge the extent of their disfigurement and depend on them to provide emotional support and positive reinforcement for their rehabilitation.

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Patients and families have also identified the need for health care providers to provide informational, practical, and emotional support to help them develop effective coping skills and increase confidence in social settings.

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Health care providers who use good eye contact and leisurely conversation demonstrate to the patient that the person's appearance is socially acceptable.

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Being present the first time the patient looks in the mirror, allowing them to express their feelings, and sensitively answering their questions are important ways that nurses and other health care providers can support these individuals.

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Furthermore, educating and engaging the patient in self-care activities such as shaving or applying make-up facilitates coping skills and encourages independence.[23]

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Patients and their families should be connected with health care providers in the community for ongoing social support.

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Head and neck cancer support groups can also provide valuable support to patients and their families by allowing them to meet others in similar situations and learn that they are not alone.

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  • 9 年前
    最佳解答

    從臨床角度講,我們也可以採取的步驟,對改善頭部和頸部癌症患者的心理護理。心理篩查干預是一種有效的方法來確定誰是病人在獲得正式的心理諮詢感興趣,並可能導致這些患者在改善身體和心理健康成果。[91]此外,家庭醫生通常是指派的目標和解決患者的任務“他們從醫院或癌症中心出院後的身體和心理需要。儘管許多癌症倖存者身體康復討論與他們的家庭醫生,少感到舒適的介紹,如復發或社會和家庭問題的恐懼心理關注。[92]因此,醫療保健提供商需要繼續積極評估癌症倖存者的心理需求和適當的干預。

    很少有研究已進行了實證檢驗成年人的心理社會干預的療效明顯的差別。更少有研究癌症人群的干預。頭部和頸部癌症患者的一個具體研究確定在表1已進行的研究探討干預措施,如自助材料,認知行為療法,組為基礎的以人為本的治療,社交技巧訓練,及支持團體,但沒有充分證明這些干預的臨床效果。

    儘管這樣,社會支持被視為減輕面部毀容患者所經歷的情緒困擾和社會功能障礙的一個重要因素。

    患者期待的家人和朋友的反應,以了解其毀容的程度,取決於他們提供情感支持和積極強化他們改過自新 。

    病人和家屬也確定為衛生保健提供者需要提供的信息,實用性強,和情感支持,以幫助他們制定有效的應對技能,並增加對社會環境的信心。

    衛生保健提供者誰使用良好的目光接觸和悠閒的談話表明,人的外表是社會可以接受的病人。

    在場的病人看起來鏡子,讓他們表達自己的感情,第一次和敏銳地回答他們的問題是,護士和其他衛生保健提供者可以支持這些人的重要途徑。

    此外,教育和參與病人的自我保健活動,如剃或申請化妝有利於應對技巧,並鼓勵獨立。[23]患者和他們的家庭應在社區衛生保健提供者,為正在進行的社會支持連接。

    頭部和頸部癌症支持團體也可以向患者及家屬提供的寶貴支持,讓他們在類似情況下,以滿足他人和學習,他們並不孤單。

  • 9 年前

    從臨床的角度來看,我們還可以採取步驟來提高頭部和頸部癌症病人的心理社會。心理篩查干預是一種有效的方法來識別病人有興趣獲得正式的社會心理輔導,並且可能導致這些患者改善體質和心理健康成果。[91] 此外,家庭醫生通常指定目標和處理病人的身體和心理的需要,他們從醫院或癌症中心出院後的任務。雖然許多癌症倖存者討論與他們的家庭醫生的身體康復,少舒服提出社會心理的問題,例如他們害怕復發或社會和家庭問題。[92] 因此,衛生保健提供者需要繼續積極評估癌症倖存者的心理需要,並作出適當的介入。2011-11-26 16:22:22 補充

    幾項研究進行實證檢驗可見的差異與成人的心理社會干預措施的效果。更少過癌症人群的干預措施。在表 1 中標識特定于頭頸部癌症患者的一項研究

    2011-11-26 16:22:45 補充

    進行的研究過干預自助材料、 認知行為療法、 基於組的以人為本的治療,如社交技巧訓練,和支援組,但仍未充分表明這些干預的臨床效果。

    2011-11-26 16:24:09 補充

    儘管如此,社會的支援被視為緩解情緒和社會功能障礙患者面部毀容所經歷的一個重要因素。

    2011-11-26 16:24:28 補充

    患者期待著家人和朋友來衡量他們的缺陷的嚴重程度,取決於他們提供精神上的支援和為他們康復正面的反應。

    2011-11-26 16:24:42 補充

    病人及其家屬也確定需要提供資訊性、 實用性和情感支援的衛生保健提供者,以説明他們發展有效的應對技巧和增加社會設置的信心。

    2011-11-26 16:25:18 補充

    衛生保健提供者才會用眼神接觸和悠閒的談話給病人證明人的外觀為社會所接受。

    2011-11-26 16:25:30 補充

    在場首次病人著鏡子,從而能夠表達自己的感情,和靈敏回答他們的問題是護士和其他衛生保健提供者可以支援這些個人的重要途徑。

    2011-11-26 16:25:41 補充

    此外,教育和參與促進病人的自我保健活動如剃須或化妝應對技巧和鼓勵獨立。[] 23

    2011-11-26 16:26:18 補充

    患者及其家屬應在持續的社會支援社區衛生保健提供者的連接。

    2011-11-26 16:26:29 補充

    頭頸部癌症支援組還可以提供寶貴的支援向病人及其家屬,允許他們在類似情況下滿足他人和學習他們並不孤單。

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