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匿名使用者
匿名使用者 發問時間: 藝術與人文詩詞與文學 · 10 年前

麻煩請幫我翻譯以下的英文 這是一個有關於人類學論文內的英文

Femalemultiple mating and alternative mating systems candecreasethe opportunity for sexual selection 1–3. Sperm competition is often theoutcome of females mating with multiple males and has been observed in manyanimals 1,4–7, and alternative reproductive systems are widespread amongspecies with external fertilization and parental care3,8–10. Multiple paternitywithout associated complex behaviour related to mating or parental care is alsoseen in simultaneously spawning amphibians 11–15 and fishes 16that releasegametes into water. Here we report ‘clutch piracy’ in a montane population ofthe common frog Ranatemporaria,a reproductive behaviour previously unknown invertebrateswith external fertilization. Males of this species claspthe femalesand the pair deposits one spherical clutch of eggs. No parentalcare is provided. ‘Pirate’ males search for freshly laidclutches,clasp them as they would do a female and fertilize theeggsthat were left unfertilized by the ‘parental’ male. Thisbehaviourdoes not seem to be size-dependent, and some malesmatewith a female and perform clutch piracy in the same season.Piracyaffected 84% of the clutches and in some cases increasedtheproportion of eggs fertilized, providing direct fitness benefitsbothfor the pirate males and the females17. Sexual selection—probablycaused by a strong male-biased sex ratio—occurs in thispopulation,as indicated by size-assortative mating; however,clutchpiracy may reduce its impact. This provides a goodmodelto explore how alternative mating strategies can affecttheintensity of sexual selection.Anuranamphibians have a wide diversity of reproductive modes,butexternal aquatic fertilization without parental care is theancestraland most widespread strategy18.

1 個解答

評分
  • ?
    Lv 5
    10 年前
    最佳解答

    您好~

    很高興為您服務和解答:

    以下是Google的翻譯

    Femalemultiple交配和交配系統可以替代

    decreasethe性選擇1-3精子競爭的機會往往是與多個雄性交配的雌性theoutcome,並已在manyanimals1,4-7觀察,和替代生殖系統與外部受精和家長 care3,8- 10廣泛 amongspecies。多paternitywithout相關複雜的行為與交配或父母照顧 alsoseen同時在11-15兩棲動物和魚類產卵成水16that releasegametes,這裡我們報告中山區人口ofthe共同蛙“離合器盜版”

    temporaria,一個先前未知的生殖行為

    該品種扣vertebrateswith體外受精。男性

    對存款的femalesand的一個雞蛋球形離合器。

    沒有 parentalcare提供。“海盜”剛下崗的男性搜索

    離合器,扣他們,因為他們會做一個女性和培肥

    eggsthat人所留下的“父母”男性未受精,這

    behaviourdoes似乎不是大小而定,有的男性

    matewith女性和執行在同一個季節離合器盜版。

    Piracyaffected84%的魔掌,在某些情況下增加

    雞蛋 theproportion受精,提供直接的健身好處

    bothfor海盜男性和females17。性選擇 -

    一個強大的男性偏見性probablycaused比率發生在這

    人口,如大小,選型交配表示,但是,

    clutchpiracy可能減少其影響,這提供了良好的

    modelto探討如何選擇交配策略可以影響

    theintensity性選擇。

    Anuranamphibians有廣泛的生殖方式的多樣性,

    butexternal沒有父母照顧的水施肥

    ancestraland最廣泛 strategy18。

    希望有幫助到您

    謝謝~

    參考資料: Google翻譯
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