揪歡喜 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 8 年前


The Myth of Zero to ThreeAs OPPORTUNITIES for free play in children's lives began to recede, parents were handed another set of child-rearing nostrums-this time by cutting-edge scientists. For decades, psychologists who specialized in human development had been showing, using behavioral-type experiments, that the early experiences in a child's life matter. Test after test indicated that babies and toddlers who were cuddled, given consis­tent and responsive care, kindly and frequently spoken to, and who had plenty of exposure to singing and books, did better in school and later in life than babies and toddlers who didn't have that kind of care.In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the nascent field of neuroscience began to provide a hard scientific gloss to all that soft and squishy behavioral science. At that time, state-of-the-art brain scan technology required physicians to inject radioactive substances into their subjects. Not surprisingly, few parents would subject their kids to those kinds of tests. In 1987, though, brain scientists started to get glimpses of what was happening inside a child's head. Dr. Harry Chugani, a researcher at Wayne State University, injected radioactive glucose into twenty-nine epileptic children ranging in age from a few days to fifteen years old in order to measure brain function through positron-emission tomogra­phy (PET) scans. The area of the brain that takes up the most glucose, he reasonably assumed, was most active and therefore requires more energy.What Chugani "saw" with his PET scans astonished the scientific community and set off a cascade of actions and reactions that impact our view of childhood to this day. Far from being dormant, the brain of a two-year-old consumes glucose at approximately the same metabolic rate as the brain of an adult. That rate continues to increase, reaching rates twice the adult level by age three or four, and continues to blaze away until a child is about nine.

2 個解答

  • 8 年前

    零到三歲的神話正當小孩在生活上可以自由玩樂的機會減少,尖端的科學家又開始亂教父母,另一套關於撫養孩子的妙招。幾十年來,專攻人類發展的心理學家一向表示,根據行為試驗,兒童早期的生活經驗很重要。無數的試驗指出,擁抱嬰兒及在學步期的小孩、穩定地照顧和回應他們、時常地親切地和他們說話、讓他們接觸很多的音樂及書本,和沒有受到如此照料的孩子相比之下,受到如此照料的孩子在學校及未來生活上表現得比較好。在80年代未期及90年代初期,剛啟蒙的神經科學領域,幫助理論模糊、基礎不實的行為科學,鋪上了一層硬科學的底子。依當時最先進的技術,醫師仍要先對測試對象注射過放射性物質後,才能進行腦部掃描,自然而然,父母很少會讓自己的孩子接受這樣的測試。雖然如此,在1987年,研究腦部的科學家總算可以稍微了解兒童腦部的情形。韋恩大學(WayneState University)的研究者,邱格聶(Harry Chugani)博士,為了透過正子斷層掃描(PET scans)來測量腦部功能,所以對於剛出生幾天到十五歲之間,29個患有癲癇症的兒童,注射了放射性葡萄糖。他合理地假設,佔用最多葡萄糖的腦部區域,因為活動最頻繁,因此需要更多的能量。邱格聶從正子斷層掃描所看出的結果,震驚了學術界,並如火如茶地開展了一連串地行動及回應,至今仍影響我們對兒童時期的看法。從新陳代謝率來看,兩歲兒童腦部消耗的葡萄糖和成人相比,大約是一樣的。而新陳代謝率隨著年紀而持續攀昇,在三到四歲時,達到成人程度的兩倍,並且在九歲前不斷地繼續成長。

    2012-02-06 20:15:17 補充:


  • 8 年前


    免費玩在孩子們的生活中的機會開始消退,父母都是由另一套育兒藥補這次傳尖端的科學家。幾十年來,已經放映心理學家專業從事人類發展,使用行為類型的實驗,在孩子的生活中的早期經驗很重要。測試結果顯示嬰幼兒懷裡抱誰著,鑒於 consis­tent 和反應迅速的照顧、 慈祥和經常口語,誰有足夠的接觸歌唱和書籍,更好地做在學校,後來在生活比沒有這樣照顧嬰幼兒後測試。

    在 80 年代末和 90 年代初,這一新興的神經科學領域開始提供所有的軟和鬆軟的行為科學的硬科學光澤。在當時,先進的腦部掃描技術要求醫生把放射性物質注入其科目。毫不奇怪,幾個父母會受他們的孩子,這些類的實驗。不過,在 1987 年,腦科學家開始得一瞥的孩子的腦袋裡發生了什麼事情。哈裡 · 希爾斯百貨博士,韋恩州立大學研究員放射性的葡萄糖注入了二十九個癲癇患兒年齡從幾天到十五歲不等,以測量正電子發射 tomogra­phy (PET) 掃描通過大腦功能。他合理地認為,是最活躍與因此需要更多的能量,佔據大多數葡萄糖,大腦的地區。