Patrice 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 8 年前

請幫我翻譯這幾段英文.. (PS不要用翻譯機翻) 謝謝

Previous human studies have suggested that early life exposure to microbes (i.e., germs) is an important determinant of adulthood sensitivity to allergic and autoimmune diseases such as hay fever, asthma and inflammatory bowel disease.

This concept of exposing people to germs at an early age (i.e., childhood) to build immunity is known as the hygiene hypothesis.

Medical professionals have suggested that the hygiene hypothesis explains the global increase of allergic and autoimmune diseases in urban settings. It has also been suggested that the hypothesis explains the changes that have occurred in society and environmental exposures, such as giving antibiotics early in life.

However, neither biologic support nor a mechanistic basis for the hypothesis has been directly demonstrated. Until now.

Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) have conducted a study that provides evidence supporting the hygiene hypothesis, as well as a potential mechanism by which it might occur.

The study was published online in the journal Science on the Science Express Web site on March 22, 2012.

The researchers studied the immune system of mice lacking bacteria or any other microbes ("germ-free mice") and compared them to mice living in a normal environment with microbes.

They found that germ-free mice had exaggerated inflammation of the lungs and colon resembling asthma and colitis, respectively. This was caused by the hyperactivity of a unique class of T cells (immune cells) that had been previously linked to these disorders in both mice and humans.

Most importantly, the researchers discovered that exposing the germ-free mice to microbes during their first weeks of life, but not when exposed later in adult life, led to a normalized immune system and prevention of diseases.

Moreover, the protection provided by early-life exposure to microbes was long-lasting, as predicted by the hygiene hypothesis.

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    Lv 6
    8 年前
    最佳解答

    之前人體研究指出早期曝露於微生物(如細菌)中,是影響成年感染過敏及自體免疫性疾病的重要關鍵;像是花粉症、氣喘及炎症性腸病。

    於人們幼年時(即童年時)建立對細菌、病菌免疫力的概念稱之為衛生假說(hygiene hypothesis)。

    醫療專業人士指出衛生假說可解釋在都市環境中,過敏及自體免疫性疾病的全球性增長。同時亦指出該假說解釋了存在社會及環境風險中已產生了變化,就同在早期給予抗生素施打。

    無論是假說的生物應或是機制研究基礎都已直接證明了其理論,直到現在。

    布里根婦女醫院(BWH)研究人員進行一項研究即可作為衛生假說的支持及依據,其潛在機制是有可能發生的。

    該項研究於2012年3月22日發表於科學快訊網站上的線上科學期刊。

    研究人員研究缺乏病菌或是其他微生物的白鼠(即無菌老鼠)與生活在帶有病菌的一般環境的老鼠的免疫系統進行比較。

    他們分別在無菌老鼠身上發現類似氣喘的肺部/結腸發炎(炎症)和結腸炎。這是因為唯一類型的T系胞(免疫系統)活化,已在先前將這些疾病連結於老鼠及人體中。

    最重要的是,研究者發現將生命週期第一週的無菌老鼠曝露在具有微生物環境中,而不是曝露在稍晚的成年期後;可將免疫系統導向正常化並可預防疾病。

    此外,衛生假說預測(預言)的是早期接觸微生物所提供的保護是長期性的。

    2012-04-03 15:11:48 補充:

    補充有關衛生假說的資訊:「衛生假說」,在幼年時期接觸過感染原,會使免疫系統對致病的病毒、細菌和寄生蟲的抵抗力更高。然而較佳的衛生條件剝奪了對免疫系統的訓練,在不明的原因下,身體開始攻擊無害的顆粒,如灰塵和豬草,好像這些東西具有致命的威脅。過敏反應導致氣喘的典型症狀:慢性發炎、呼吸道腫脹和呼吸道急性痙攣。

    請參考已下網址(當然還有其他的)

    http://sa.ylib.com/circus/circusshow.asp?FDocNo=17...

    Hope it helps

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