Johson C 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 8 年前

increase in 和 increasing 語意的差異

對於 increase in 和 increasing 語意的差異,我知道 increase in 是名詞而 increasing 是動詞主動形態,但我有些不確定這題的語意差別。

Q: A study of food resources in the North Pacific between 1989 ans 1996 revealed _____ sea surface temperatures during the same period.

(A) that creatures of the seabed were suffering because food supplies were dwindling, possibly as a result of an increase in

(B) that creatures of the seabed were suffeing because of good supplies, which were dwindling possibly as a result of increasing

(C) creatures of the seabed were suffering because food supplies were dwindling, possibly resulting from increasing (此項被我修過非原題,為了討論方便)

1. 正確答案是A,語意我也大概知道,只就 increse 這個字的不同形態對此題的語意會造成什麼差異?

2. reveal that..., that 是否可省略?

3. increasing 是否有動名詞形態?

以上懇請高手回答!

已更新項目:

果然是高手,回覆得簡潔明暸!非常感謝。

關於 increasing,當初老師講解時,直接挑明這不合語意,但也沒講清楚,應該也是改變句意的問題,不知對於這點您有什麼意見?

1 個解答

評分
  • 8 年前
    最佳解答

    這題是語意學高階考法。解釋很長,請仔細看。

    increasing 可以當動名詞,但本題重點不在名詞 increase 和動名詞 increasing 的差異。

    這題是考分詞片語 resulting from 和介係詞片語 as a result of 的分別、以及 dwindling 語意上的重要性。

    resulting from 是分詞片語,一般當形容詞修飾名詞:

    We are still dealing with problems resulting from errors made in the past.

    There are some job losses resulting from changes in production.

    as a result of 是介係詞片語,一般做副詞,修飾形容詞、動詞或整句:

    As a result of the pilots' strike, all flights have had to be canceled.

    (修飾後面全句)

    She died as a result of her injuries.

    (修飾動詞 died)

    明白兩者差異,立刻發現 (C) 不正確:

    Q: A study of food resources in the North Pacific between 1989 and 1996 revealed _____ sea surface temperatures during the same period.

    (C) creatures of the seabed were suffering because food supplies were dwindling, possibly resulting from increasing (X)

    這裡講的是 food supplies were dwindling 的原因,非單一名詞,不應用 resulting from ,要用 as a result of。(C) 錯

    (A) that creatures of the seabed were suffering because food supplies were dwindling, possibly as a result of an increase in

    (B) that creatures of the seabed were suffering because of good supplies, which were dwindling possibly as a result of increasing

    (A) (B) 皆用 as a result of , (A) 中修飾 food supplies were dwindling,(B) 則修飾 dwindling,都沒錯。

    但請看dwindling 的位置。

    英語修飾語用逗點標開,可以看成補述,表示較不重要,可以不看,如此一來,兩句就有分別:

    (A) 海床生物受害是因為 food supplies were dwindling (O)

    (B) 海床生物受害是因為 food supplies (X)

    食物供應「越來越少」才是受害原因,dwindling 才是重點。故 (A) 在邏輯上勝過 (B),答案選 (A)。

    最後,revealed that 的 that,理論上可以省略,但以通順明瞭為原則。這裡 that 子句非常長,不省略比較好。但無論如何, (C) 錯不是因為省略 that,是因為 resulting from 修飾 food supplies were dwindling 不恰當。

    2012-04-11 12:46:49 補充:

    我說 increase + ing 成為 increasing 可以當動名詞。但沒有說 (C)possibly resulting from increasing sea surface temperatures 的 increasing 是動名詞。

    這裡用 increasing 是對的,沒有語意的問題。 (C)錯是因為 resulting from .... 用法錯誤。這種錯誤在修辭學上稱為 dangling (modifier),因為它必須修飾名詞,卻沒有名詞讓它修飾。

    2012-04-11 12:51:53 補充:

    (回答字數超過,其餘請看意見欄)

    2012-04-11 12:56:41 補充:

    resulting from increasing sea surface temperatures 的 increasing 是現在分詞當形容詞,表示由於「升高的」海面溫度,修飾 temperatures。

    你們老師如果說 increasing 是動名詞,他錯了。

    也許他看到 from,以為 increasing 當 from 的受詞,是動名詞,而 sea surface temperatures 是 increasing 的受詞,表示因為「增加了」海面溫度,所以語意錯誤。

    2012-04-11 13:03:07 補充:

    其實,複合名詞 sea surface temperatures 才是 from 的受詞, increasing 是形容詞「升高的」,整個 resulting from increasing sea surface temperatures 「因為升高的海面溫度」,本身語意是沒有問題的。只是不能用在這裡,這是 resulting from 修飾對象的問題。

還有問題?馬上發問,尋求解答。