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關於英文被動式疑問

請問高手

我在cnn上看到一跑馬燈上寫

Australian suffer killed by shark(s).

抱歉,最後那個shark我忘記有沒有加上s

那順便一問

Q1. 請問shark加s與不加s有何差別??

Q2. 衝浪者不是被咬死嗎,那為何不是用be+p.p.??

所以我覺得為什麼不用 Australian suffer was killed by shark(s).

請高手詳細指點,感謝你們

已更新項目:

to 天魔小雲(L.C.) - 7月進修去:

I apologized for making a stupid mistake.

是surfer,不是suffer......筆誤筆誤..

說到這,我又跑出一個問題了,像上面的句子,我用過去式 apologized 是否正確?

雖然知道過去一段時間要使用過去式,但我常搞不懂

發表評論、敘述故事、寫文章..等等,到底何時要用過去式...

市面上有沒有對於這方面詳細解釋阿,好亂

謝謝你們...

感謝大大協助

2 個已更新項目:

感謝 DaSaGwa 大師

可否針對小弟新發的意見協助?

可請你們將解答寫在答案欄嗎??

謝謝

3 個已更新項目:

請 天魔小雲(L.C.) - 7月進修去 大大將答案複製在答案欄可以嗎??

感謝您的"售後服務",讚讚!

4 個已更新項目:

to DaSaGwa :

Thank you for the suggestion.

It's helpful.

Thanks again. :)

5 個已更新項目:

to 天魔小雲(L.C.) - 7月進修去:

I sent you an e-mail. :D

4 個解答

評分
  • Louis
    Lv 7
    8 年前
    最佳解答

    像這樣的句子An australian surfer was killed by a shark.

    寫成新聞標題時,就會寫成Australian surfer killed by shark

    標題裡的killed不是過去式動詞,而是過去分詞,表示被動(介系詞by可以幫你辨識)

    冠詞和助動詞等會刪去,這是為了縮短標題的長度.只保留content words,

    structure words都會略去.

    標題用不定詞報導未來的事

    用現在分詞也是報導未來的事(或即將發生)

    用過去分詞是被動(屬過去)

    用現在式動詞報的是己經發生的事(屬過去)

    你注意看新聞報導的內文,就可以發現標題和內文的用字方式是不同..

    2012-07-16 18:12:59 補充:

    http://www.chinapost.com.tw/Default.asp?pageto=2

    你可以上Chinapost去看新聞標題的寫作方式來驗證

    2012-07-16 18:50:24 補充:

    和content words相對應的是function words,只有文法功能,不帶資訊,所以標題常常不將function words寫出來.

    2012-07-17 22:15:32 補充:

    標題的動詞時態:

    用[現在分詞]談論變化。如:Britain Getting Warmer, Say Scientists (getting = is getting)。

    2012-07-17 22:15:40 補充:

    用[過去分詞]表示被動。如:Murder Hunt: Man Held (Held = is being held)。

    Sis Killed in Explosion (killed = have been killed)。因為標題少用過去式,故過去式往往是過去分詞。如:Boy Found Safe = The missing boy has been found safe. 但Boy Finds Safe = A boy has found a safe.

    2012-07-17 22:16:08 補充:

    用[不定詞]表示將來。如:Hospitals to Take Fewer Patients(各家醫院計劃少收病人)。或用介系詞for表示將要實現的計劃:Troops for Glasgow? (=are soldiers going to be sent to Glasgow?)

    用[簡單現在式]敘述現在和過去的事件。如:Blind Girl Climbs Everest (climbs = …has climbed…)。

    用[現在式],以強調報導的即時性或立即性,但有時以過去式報導,如:

    19 hrs. after Deadline, the War Began

    2012-07-17 22:16:39 補充:

    [未來式]偶爾會出現,如:

    4 Large Companies Will Reduce Emissions That Harm Ozone Layer

    但未來式並不常用。通常用is to+動詞(或are to+動詞)現在式,表示未來,如:

    Liz Taylor, 8th Husband [are] to be Wed This Week

    (be動詞are可以省略)

    2012-07-17 22:17:00 補充:

    [被動語態]的標題:Melbourne mayor is stabbed (by angry voter)

    [主動語態]的標題:Angry voter stabs Melbourne mayor

    Mayor stabbed at midnight = Mayor is stabbed at midnight 「市長半夜遭刺」

    Mayor stabbed someone at midnight「市長半夜刺人」。

    2012-07-17 22:17:28 補充:

    新聞標題中會使用到幾個特殊的動詞片語來標示消息來源:is said to, is reported to和reportedly。

    (1) [is] said to

    Melbourne Mayor Said to be Near Death

    市長即將駕鶴西歸(消息來源可能是市長幕僚或醫院人員)

    2012-07-17 22:17:52 補充:

    (2) [is] reported to

    Melbourne Mayor Is Reported to Have Mafia Connections

    據可靠消息,墨爾本市長與黑手黨掛勾。

    (除非消息已由法庭證實,報紙均以這種方式刊登。)

    2012-07-17 22:18:12 補充:

    (3) reportedly

    Mayor’s Birthday Party Reportedly Cost City $25G

    據可靠消息市長的生日派對花掉市庫兩萬五千美元。

    (句中的 G 是 grand 的縮寫,為美國俚語的一千美元 = a thousand dollars)

    2012-07-17 22:18:37 補充:

    (4)數字

    為節省空間,標題有使用數字的慣例。

    數字通常指人數,如:

    Anti-smoking Efforts Will Save 3 Million

    這裡指的是300萬人的生命。

    2012-07-17 22:19:21 補充:

    年齡亦可用數字表示,如6 這個數字用逗點與上下文隔開,是男孩的年齡。

    Boy, 6, Killed by 18-wheeler

    第二個數詞 “18-wheeler” 是口語的18輪大卡車。

    在體育版中,數字是得分。

    Red Sox Beat Yankees, 4-3

    波士頓紅襪隊以四比三打敗紐約洋基隊。

    2012-07-17 22:19:48 補充:

    序數(first, second, third, fourth, fifth等) 通常寫成 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th等,如:

    Strike Enters 4th Day at Sisy Steel Co.

    (有時second和third以2d和3d表示。)

    當數字出現在$符號之後,表示錢的數額。數字的後面如果跟著B, G或M字母。B= 10億 (billion)、G=1千 (G 是 grand 的縮寫,為美國俚語的一千美元)、M=100萬 (million)。如:

    Storm Damage Estimated at $2.5m

    2012-07-17 22:21:22 補充:

    剛好找到以前教新聞英語的檔案,附在補充和意見欄,請參考.

    2012-07-17 22:23:37 補充:

    標題多採用短句結構來節省篇幅。如:

    U.S. Bombs Baghdad

    Inner-City Teen Talks about Drugs

    標題常用名詞片語,沒有動詞,或連續使用許多名詞,前面的修飾後面。如:

    Killer ‘cane! (殺人颶風 – ‘cane 為 hurricane 的簡寫)

    More Wage Cuts (工資再度削減)

    Furniture Factory Pay Cut Row (傢俱廠削減工資的爭議)。

    2012-07-17 22:23:59 補充:

    冠詞(或限定詞) the和a(n)常被省略。如:

    [The] Prime Ministers of [the] Two Koreas Agree to Meet

    be 動詞(尤其是 is 或 are)常被省略,如:

    Otsuki [is] Found Guilty of Murder

    West Bank, Gaza [are] Quiet on Uprising Anniversary

    上面例子中,逗點代表省略了and。

    Shakespeare Play Immoral, Says Headmaster(有位校長說:莎士比亞戲劇有傷風化)冠詞和be動詞省略。

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  • 8 年前

    yes, otherwise, it might have TWO verbs !

    2012-07-16 13:58:55 補充:

    L.C.! you "graduate" earlier than expected?

    2012-07-16 14:13:04 補充:

    阿里不達! If you want to apologize for this mistake. You shall use "present tense". Using "past tense" means you "HAVE" apologized, that doesn't fit the situation, because it just happens (near past = close to present).

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  • 8 年前

    陣聞英文的特點

    就是標是用字很「省」

    2012-07-16 13:57:55 補充:

    SORRY 上一意見是「新聞」 不是陣聞

    Australian suffer (was) killed by (a) shark.

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  • Should it be "surfer," not "suffer"?

    2012-07-16 13:56:18 補充:

    Australian Surfer Killed by Sharks

    It's a noun phrase functioning as the headline of the news, which is very widely seen in news report.

    2012-07-16 14:06:18 補充:

    No, unfortunately, I flunked out of class . . .

    Ha, just kidding!! I got a day off so I decided to poke my nose around.

    2012-07-16 14:11:18 補充:

    如果是道歉的話,下面兩種標題寫法都正確:

    KMT Politician "Apologized" For Taking Bribe

    KMT Politician "Apologizing" For Taking Bribe

    Both are acceptable.

    (如果動詞是主動用法的話,用過去式、或者用現在分詞修飾都可以)

    又例:

    Murder Suspect Pleaded Guilty

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