阿恩 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 8 年前

何時使用in何時用into

像是遇到句子如:

He smashed the vase in the door.

在此是用in而非into,但為何into不可用?

4 個解答

評分
  • 8 年前
    最佳解答

    Prepositions like in, to, from, towards, into, along, through ... and so on are call the spatial preposition (空間介詞). It has two subcategories: directional (方向性) and static (靜止). When you use "in", it is only static, but when you use "into", then it is directional. Other examples:

    into, onto, unto (up to) ...

    With the above said, your sentence:

    He smashed the vase in the door.

    Here, using "in" is NOT proper, because the object (vase) doesn't actually "IN" the door. Therefore, the proper preposition would be:

    against, onto, towards, through ...

    Master T has given 3 nice examples for using "into" and "in", so I would not elaborate more. However, I like to elaborate more about prepositions like into, onto, unto ... These directional prepositions usually involve a motion along a path over time, but it can also denote a non-temporal path (非時間性路徑) . For examples:

    John went to school. (motion over time)

    A path into the deep forrest. (non-temporal path, because this path is

    already there )

    Static preposition will not involve a movement, they include:at, in, on, beside, behind, under and above.

    Also, directional preposition shall always use with verbs that involve motion, but static preposition can combine with other verbs. For examples:

    Bob is lying down in his bedroom (fine)

    Bob is lying down into/from his bedroom (bad, "lying" is an action,

    not a motion)

    Preposition is very complicate, there is NO ONE simple rule that can govern it well, you just have to put your mind to feel it.

    2012-07-20 02:00:03 補充:

    a little correction:

    ...doesn't actually IN the door ==> doesn't actually get IN the door.

    2012-07-20 10:48:34 補充:

    Master Infinto! I don't disagree with your saying about using "in". Like I said "in" is static preposition. It can be used with any verbs with or without motion. The different is when you use with verb with motion, it kind of degrades the motion of the verb.

    2012-07-20 10:54:29 補充:

    "in" doesn't indicate the DIRECTION, but just POSITION. For example: "throw in the basket", all it indicates is just the FINAL position of the object.

    2012-07-20 10:55:04 補充:

    However, "throw into the basket", it indicates not only the DIRECTION it will take, but also the FINAL POSITION it will be.

    2012-07-20 22:17:13 補充:

    With all these discussions with master Infinito and Louis, there are still some conceptual difference, but one thing for sure is no one agrees to use "into".

    2012-07-20 22:17:47 補充:

    On the other hand, master Infinito, Louis and I will NOT think so much to use these prepositions in our day-to-day conversation as we have discussed :-)

    2012-07-21 01:44:20 補充:

    I like this kind of discussion, because it really brings out the different understanding from different people. It makes you feel more confident when you want to use these prepositions. Many thanks to master Infinito and Louis.

    參考資料: self
  • Louis
    Lv 7
    8 年前

    smash當及物動詞,和doo有關時,如果是指碰撞,宜用介系詞against,以免有語病,因為門除了指一扇門板外(一個實物),還是一個可以穿過的通道。

    即He smashed the vase against the door.他把瓦罐砸在門板上,(結果碎掉了)。

    If you smash something or if it smashes, it breaks into many pieces, for example when it is hit or dropped.

    If something smashes or is smashed against something solid, it moves very fast and with great force against it.

    如:They smashed the log agaisnt the gate.

    及物動詞smash可配其它的介系詞:

    He smashed his fist into Anthony's face.

    He smashed me in the belly.

    按這裡例句的介系詞用法,He smashed the vase in the door.是正確的,用介系詞into也無不可了。

    smash當不及物動詞用:

    If you smash through a door, you get through it by hitting and breaking it.

    The detective smashed in the door.刑警破門而入。

    以上例句參考Cobuild Colllins及遠東新世紀英漢辭典。

    2012-07-20 12:17:11 補充:

    door漏打了r

    2012-07-20 12:20:39 補充:

    The car smashed into a wall.

    不及物的另一個例句。

  • 8 年前

    我雖贊同DSG對於into的解析, 但不認為版主的句子用in是錯誤; 換句話說, 這裡的in the door也是正確用法之一.

    He smashed the vase in the door.

    in the door是形容詞片語修飾vase, 還是副詞片語修飾smashed呢?

    依整句語意來看, 顯然是後者, 因為這裡in the door意思並不是「位於門內」, 而是表達一個方向「向門內」, 其中in的反向是out of.

    例如:

    He smashed the vase out of the window.

    <--- out of the window也是表達一個方向來修飾動詞, 而不是說那個花瓶「位於」窗外.

    回到原句, door只是個房間入口, 此句的意思是他把花瓶扔往門內砸碎, 而不是扔到門板上(against the door)砸碎.

    如果用towards the door(扔向門)當然也可以, 但結果未必有扔進房內(有可能失準), 與版主原句有差別.

    如果本句要用into, 那應該是into the room, 而不會是into the door, 因為door只是薄薄一片或是入口概念, 而不是一個封閉空間, 不宜用into.

    2012-07-20 15:10:16 補充:

    Well, "throw the ball in/into the basket" actually means no dfference both in direction and in position. The phrase "in/into the basket" does not by any means modify the ball. It's undoubtedly an adverbial phrase modifying throw, and is thus shiftable,

    2012-07-20 15:11:09 補充:

    e.g.

    He throws in the basket the ball in hand.

    "in the basket" denotes direction and final position.

    "in hand" denotes initial position.

    2012-07-20 15:12:07 補充:

    Secondly, "smash xxx into the door" makes no sense because a "door" is not a space to smash into, but a 'room" is.

    However, "smash xxx on/onto the floor" makes sense, and "smash xxx in the door" does too (= smash xxx inside the room through the door).

    參考資料: Infinito - 無極
  • T
    Lv 6
    8 年前

    He smashed the vase in the door. 這句子本身不是很順˙

    應該是 He smashed the vase against the door

    有時候要看使用的情況來決定該用 in 或是 into

    大部分時候 into 要表達 "由外而入" 的意思˙

    比如說

    Teacher walks into a classroom. (由外而入)

    I am walking into the house. (由外而入)

    I am in the house. (只表達在裡面)

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