博翔 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 7 年前

文法分詞構句問題

請問前輩們.....

1.Do you know how many people will be there ____all of your cunsins

a. including b. included

正確答案是a, 想知道為什麼???

2.He spent all day Sundy just ____ about

a. messing b.messed

正確答案是a, 是因為spent + Ving嗎??

3.Weather permitting, we'll have a garden party this weekend

= If weather _____ , we'll have a garden party this weekend

a. is permitting b. permits

正確答案是a, 想知道為什麼???

4.Mr. Johnson is a businessman _____ in high esteem in his community

a. holding b. held

"人"主持,應該表主動, 為何選a是錯的???

5.a letter written in English

the mother loved by her children

這裡的written, loved 是動詞嗎???

4 個解答

評分
  • 羅莉
    Lv 7
    7 年前
    最佳解答

    1.Do you know how many people will be there ____all of your cunsins

    a. including b. included

    正確答案是a, 想知道為什麼???

    how子句的動詞是will be, 不能再有動詞, 所以空格是分詞.

    分詞用Ving或Vpp, 與位置有關:

    主動: ---> including all your cousins.

    被動: 先加逗號---> all your cousins included.

    故正解為a.

    2.He spent all day Sundy just ____ about

    a. messing b.messed

    正確答案是a, 是因為spent + Ving嗎??

    分詞是主動或被動, 要從語意來分辨.

    mess的主詞與主句的主詞He一致, 以He的立場, 閒混(mess about)是主動, 故用messing.

    3.Weather permitting, we'll have a garden party this weekend

    = If weather _____ , we'll have a garden party this weekend

    a. is permitting b. permits

    正確答案是a, 想知道為什麼???

    標準答案錯誤! 正解是b.

    分詞構句的主詞與主句的主詞不同時, 分詞的主詞(weather)不省略.

    分詞構句還原為子句型態時, 依其動作性質與時態為之

    本句還原為未來條件子句, 以現在式帶替未來式, 且permit性質為瞬間動詞不可用進行式, 所

    以要用permits, 不可用is permitting.

    4.Mr. Johnson is a businessman _____ in high esteem in his community

    a. holding b. held

    "人"主持,應該表主動, 為何選a是錯的???

    這裡的holding/held不是主持之意, 而且並不是說人就一定是主動.

    片語 be held in high esteem : 倍受尊重

    這是被動語意, 所以要填held.

    5.a letter written in English

    the mother loved by her children

    這裡的written, loved 是動詞嗎???

    不是動詞, 而是修飾性質的分詞.

    信是被寫的, 所以用written

    愛後面有by, 是被動語意, 所以用loved; 若沒有by就是主動, 要用loving.

    2012-09-25 11:09:41 補充:

    Louis大師說的是對的, 但不夠深入.

    concerning, regarding, including, excluding, considering, barring, excepting, failing,

    pending, respecting, wanting, lacking, following, given, granted...等分詞, 因後接受詞

    其功能類同介系詞, 故借來當介系詞用, 這類的Ving或Vpp稱為邊緣介系詞(marginal

    preposition).

    還原為關係子句時, 它們都可以恢復動詞身份.

    2012-09-26 14:37:46 補充:

    Keeping what belongs to another amounts to stealing.

    Keeping是動名詞, 名詞子句what belongs to another是其受詞..

    動名詞片語Keeping what belongs to another 是本句的主詞.

    amounts是三單動詞

    不及物動詞amount + 介系詞to = 及物效果, 動名詞stealing為其受詞.

    2012-09-28 23:26:27 補充:

    >Jim refused to taste the bad-smelling soup

    >但如果選bad-smelled這整句的含意狀況又是如何??

    smell屬於「物主動」, 例如: It smells bad. 而非"It is smelled bad"

    所以複合為bad-smelling, 而非"bad-smelled".

    2012-09-28 23:45:33 補充:

    reach也是「物主動」, 例如: His powers reach far. 而非"are reached far"

    所以複合為far-reaching, 而非"far-reached".

    self-absorbed girl 說的是自我吸引, 而不是自己去吸引人.

    這是被動語意, 所以是self-absorbed.

    a self-supporting man 說的是支持自己, 而不是自己被支持

    這是主動語意, 所以是self-supporting.

    2012-10-14 05:22:29 補充:

    不是的.

    如果沒有for的話, being xxx是形容詞片語;

    有了for, 那麼for being xxx就是表示原因的副詞片語.

    參考資料: 羅莉 - 英文文法
  • 7 年前

    有些過去分詞具有純形容詞的特性, 例如retired(退休了的), 退休是主動動作, 卻用Vpp.

    behaved也是一樣, 它可純作形容詞用, 意思是""行為...的", "表現...的", 所以behave雖是主動, 但形容詞卻用Vpp.

    請參閱: http://tw.dictionary.yahoo.com/dictionary?p=behave...

    2012-09-29 00:16:08 補充:

    a retiring man意思不同, retiring指「屆退休的; 辦理退休中的」.

  • 7 年前

    請問羅莉大師

    Keeping what belongs to another amounts to stealing.將他人之物佔為己有等於偷竊

    那這Keeping是動名詞是吧???

    2012-09-26 18:48:34 補充:

    謝謝羅莉大師的指導, 使對英文有興趣人更進一步

    2012-09-28 17:43:00 補充:

    請問羅莉大師

    在TOEIC裡與GEPT考試裡,很容易出現這些複合形容詞,查字典卻實可查出這些字用ed 還是ving,但在未知的情況下嘞,

    ex:

    Jim refused to taste the bad-smelling soup

    但如果選bad-smelled這整句的含意狀況又是如何??

    2012-09-28 17:43:31 補充:

    the general was given far-reaching powers to deal with the emergency

    far-reaching 為何不寫成far-reached??

    the self-absorbed girl 這個非常自我的女孩

    過去分詞表完成,那是不是代表以後,將來這女來"不會"非常自我(因已"完成"自我這動作)???

    2012-09-28 17:43:48 補充:

    還有為何不是self-absorbing, 自己使自己自我應該是"主動",為何是

    用過去分詞,且翻譯成自己被自己自我這樣不是很怪嗎??

    2012-09-28 17:44:08 補充:

    a well-behaved child也是相同問題

    守規矩是自己守規矩表主動

    怎麼會是自己被守規矩呢??

    2012-09-28 17:45:09 補充:

    a law-abiding citizen

    像這個就合理,因市民"主動"去守法,所以用ving

    2012-09-29 22:20:46 補充:

    了解~!!謝謝大師們的指教

    2012-10-14 00:34:16 補充:

    羅莉大師...請教一下

    Angie had loved those paintings for being so beautiful, but she had hated

    them,too, for being her mother’s passion

    此句兩個for being是介係詞片語當形容詞用來修飾 paintings是嗎???

  • Louis
    Lv 7
    7 年前

    1. including...是介系詞片語

    Four more countries aplied to join the EU, including Sweden and Austria.

    (see p.765 Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners 2007 edition)

    並不是加上ing字尾的都是分詞,有些是當介系詞。

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