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匿名使用者 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 7 年前

英文高手 快速翻譯 急!!

請幫我翻譯 只有幾段也好 翻譯幾段重點也行 讓我懂他意思 可以對照一下他的中文

拜託請別用線上翻譯.........謝謝 急!!

Although we have seen many examples of sophisticated, adult-like knowledge of syntactic structures and principles on the part of pre-school children, this does not mean that language development is complete by age five or six. A number of studies suggest that the years between ages five and ten may be a period when the child gets to grips with exceptional and relatively infrequent constructions and constructions that involve accessing more than one type of grammatical knowledge.

Some examples of late development are relatively well documented; most involve cases where there are lexical restrictions on rules and constructions. It is generally between six and ten years that children sort out lexical exceptions such as the fact that “promise” does not obey the general rule for control of the PRO subject of a complement clause. Where the lexical specifications involve not just an individual exception, but rather a mapping between fairly large classes of words and constructions, the learning process may go on even beyond ten years. The ambiguity of sentence to the adjective “nice” can have two different structures; other adjectives may take only one of the two possible structures. Thus “eager” does not allow a trace in the object position of its complement, and “easy” requires one:

(56) Sue is eager [PRO to please]

(57) Sue is easy [PRO to please t]

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Pre-school children frequently treat “easy”-type sentences as if they were “eager”-type sentences. Even after the child begins to recognize that there is an object gap in the

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complement in the case of “easy”-type adjectives, she may be ten or older before she reliably assigns the right structure to the right adjectives (see Cromer 1970, 1987).

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In a fairly simple-minded way we can say that these are complex constructions (involving not only a movement operation but lexical restrictions on its application) and that as such they are not mastered until into the school years.

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  • 7 年前
    最佳解答

    Although we have seen many examples of sophisticated, adult-like knowledge of syntactic structures and principles on the part of pre-school children, this does not mean that language development is complete by age five or six. A number of studies suggest that the years between ages five and ten may be a period when the child gets to grips with exceptional and relatively infrequent constructions and constructions that involve accessing more than one type of grammatical knowledge.

    雖然我們已經看過許多複雜的例題了,講究文法結構與原則對未上學的小孩是像成人般的知識,這對不代表5-6歲的小還語言發展已經成熟了。有一群學者建議以5歲或10歲的年齡距為分界,當小孩們只有少數可以了解句法概念而且句法還牽涉了一種以上的文法句型。

    Some examples of late development are relatively well documented; most involve cases where there are lexical restrictions on rules and constructions. It is generally between six and ten years that children sort out lexical exceptions such as the fact that “promise” does not obey the general rule for control of the PRO subject of a complement clause. Where the lexical specifications involve not just an individual exception, but rather a mapping between fairly large classes of words and constructions, the learning process may go on even beyond ten years. The ambiguity of sentence to the adjective “nice” can have two different structures; other adjectives may take only one of the two possible structures. Thus “” does not allow a trace in the object position of its complement, and “easy” requires one:

    有些例子比較近年發展狀況已經以文字建檔,有些事件顯示有文字障礙在法則與語法。整理出來的資料顯示一般是6-10歲的小孩有些字彙是例外的例如"promise承諾"不是遵循一般法則而算是附加子句 對於語言特殊的孩子牽涉的不只是個別的特例,更確切的說他們被以字會與文法分類,持續了10年 有些句子的形容詞涵意模糊不清 以nice為列有兩種不同的句法;其他的形容辭可能只有一個貨量個可能的語意 雖然"eager"不是允許目標物的位址所想的  和"easy"需要一個...

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