NG
Lv 7
NG 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 7 年前

by the time 以及同位語

(本句子來自於空中美語雜誌)原句:By the time he passedaway, a mere ten years later,he was an internationally recognized artist and social activist. a mere ten years later : 是不是前一句的同位語? By the time he passedaway, ….., He was an internationally …. 原By the time he passedaway, ….., He had been an internationally …. 自己的思想我是在想,既然前面句子都用By the time (在…之前) 後面依據為何不用過去完成式?而是用過去式?

已更新項目:

大家的說法,差異挺大的

2 個已更新項目:

From an early age, Keith Haring showed a keen interest in art. As an aspiring fine arts student in 1980, Keith Haring began sharing his work with the public by drawing on the walls of New York's subway stations.

3 個已更新項目:

By the time he passed away, a mere ten years later, he was an internationally recognized artist and social activist.His use of bold lines and vibrant colors created a visual language with a message of unity.

4 個已更新項目:

句子在本文章的第一段,以上是該句子第一段的上下文

5 個已更新項目:

謝謝Louis的補充,這樣子看句子感覺更清晰了

4 個解答

評分
  • Louis
    Lv 7
    7 年前
    最佳解答

    1. By the time (when) he passed away, a mere ten years later, he was an internationally recognized artist and social activist.

    a mere ten years later = the time,所以是the time的同位語。都是名詞性質。

    later是用來與前一句裡的另一個時間點做比較:只晚了十年。

    同位語不會和前一句發生關係,必須是本句裡的另一個名詞性質的字或片語。

    the time是受到了形容詞子句的限定。

    2. be動詞是表示狀態的動詞,用在一個己經去世的人時,用簡單過去式就可以了,不必寫成[過去完成式]來強調在另一件事之前,何況by the time...這個介系詞片語是用來提供he was an internaitonally recognized artist and social activist的時間點的,沒有與另外一件事來比較先後的關係。即:他死的那個時候,是國際著名的藝術家和社運人士(死與有名是同一時間點)。

    2013-02-04 17:47:10 補充:

    I've lost a mere two pounds.(p.941 Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners 2007 eiditon)

    a mere two pounds是名詞片語,把two pound視為一個單元,所以用不定冠詞a。

    同理a mere ten years later,也是把ten years later視為一個單元,所以用不定冠詞a。

    2013-02-04 17:57:33 補充:

    "By the time" is used for saying what has already happened at the time that something else happens.

    By the time we arrived, the other guests were already there.

    p.1569 Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners

    2013-02-04 18:07:15 補充:

    Macmillan 的這個例句裡的主句也是用了were即可。加上了already後,be動詞也不必用過去完成式。

    2013-02-04 18:29:00 補充:

    用[過去完成式]時,會與[過去簡單式]產生時差,會造成在[過去簡單式]這個時間點上,[過去完成式]所傳達的狀況己經不存在了。

    2013-02-04 19:03:05 補充:

    the time he passed away是一個時間座標(參考他的死這件事來定位)

    a mere ten years later也是一個時間座標(參考另一件事與他的死這件事的時差來定位)

    以上的兩個座標是同一時間點

    這樣和西元一九一一與民國元年同年的殊途同歸相同,彼此可互做同位語。

    2013-02-06 10:33:45 補充:

    by the time =/= 之前

    這是指[當時]=during the period until a particular time or date

    By mid after noon over 5,000 people had visited the exhibition.

    By the time Charlotte was 15, she had already achieved worldwide fame.

    2013-02-06 10:40:38 補充:

    建議版主把這句話的前幾句提供給大家,看看是否有另一件重要的事是發生在ten years before his death,這樣也許就可解決自己的疑惑了。

    2013-02-06 10:51:46 補充:

    前後加上逗號的同位語是非限定性質的。在本句的作用是補充性質的,提供屬於充分但非必要的資訊,但可以讓本句的內容得以和前句的內容得到時間上的對照作用。

    2013-02-06 10:56:07 補充:

    還有七天的時間,你可以提供這句的上下文,讓大家有更多的資料,在進一步討論中,逐步得到共識,並解決你的疑惑。如果沒得到確定的解釋,損失最大的還是你自己。

    2013-02-06 18:56:01 補充:

    謝謝版主提供上下文。

    前段裡的時間座標是1980,所以他的去世是1990,是前一事件(成為傑出學生)的十年之後。

    同位語a mere ten years later就是參考1980,然後讓他的死亡the time he passed away有了明確的年份。這是寫作技巧,不用再寫出1990是死期。而且用同位語來展示時間座標,較不突兀(不會搶了本句的主要焦點:他的死)。

    2013-02-06 22:03:41 補充:

    At the airport you will be met by John Wang, your host.

    在考慮同位語your host時,我們只看John Wang這部分,前面的介系詞by是不考慮在內的。

    同理,看by the time he passed away 與同位語的關係時,我們也不該考慮by這個字。

    2013-02-07 08:49:45 補充:

    a mere ten years later (than he was an aspiring student art student in 1980) = the time he passed away = 1990

    a mere ten years...是名詞性質的片語,所以前面才可以加上不定冠詞

    the time...也是名詞性質的片語,所以前面加上定冠詞

    兩個片語實質意義相等,詞性相等,所以前者是後者的同位語。

    2013-02-07 08:52:20 補充:

    The time he passed away is a mere ten years later than he was an apiring art student. And in 1980, he was an aspiring student.

    2013-02-07 12:59:28 補充:

    to 呆子

    by the time he passed away

    是介系詞片語

    整個組合方式是:

    介系詞by+名詞the time(當介系詞的受詞)+關係子句he passed away當先行詞time的修飾語

    所以主體是[介系詞片語]

    2013-02-07 18:03:58 補充:

    the time (that) he passed away = (the time that was) a mere ten years later (than he was an aspiring fine arts student in 1980

    同位關係

  • 呆子
    Lv 7
    7 年前

    1. 翻譯:在他過逝之前十年,他早已是享譽國際的藝術家及社會運動人士 2. a mere ten years later不是前一句的同位語,而是插入句當形容詞修飾time,其刪除不影響句意 3. By the time he passed away是一個參考時間點,原則上為區別其先後順序,主要子句寫成he had been an internationally recognized artist and social activist正確,惟因其時間順序明確,用過去簡單式亦可,這是英文時式的特性

    2013-02-07 11:47:45 補充:

    By the time he passed away(介繫詞片語), a mere ten years later----前端為介繫詞片語當時間副詞子句,後端名詞片語僅能修飾用。名詞修飾名詞如複合名詞table tennis。同位語:Jonn,a artist is famous for his work.可以互相替代

    2013-02-07 15:57:18 補充:

    後端名詞片語係指a mere ten years later-----

  • rhody
    Lv 7
    7 年前

    a mere ten years later : 就是前一句的同位語(appositive)

    Appositive不只是名詞而已,看這裡和這裡的定義‧

  • 羅莉
    Lv 7
    7 年前

    By the time he passed away, a mere ten years later, he was an internationally recognized artist and social activist.a mere ten years later : 是不是前一句的同位語?

    它是類似同位語的補述性質, 但不稱為同位語(appositive), 因為同位語是名詞性質, 本句的a mere ten years later是副詞性質, 不能稱為同位語.

    By the time he passed away, ….., He was an internationally …. 原

    By the time he passed away, ….., He had been an internationally …. 自己的思想

    我是在想,既然前面句子都用By the time (在…之前) 後面一句為何不用過去完成式?而是用過去式?

    本句用was或had been皆正確.

    關鍵在於be動詞表狀態而非表動作, 狀態具有持續效果, 所以可用來代替完成式.

    另例:

    How long is it since they moved away?

    = How long has it been since they moved away?

    Netapp Learning center is down since yesterday evening.

    = Netapp Learning center has been down since yesterday evening.

    It was years since I lived there.

    = It had been years since I lived there.

    2013-02-06 11:12:22 補充:

    By the time he passed away

    ---> after a mere ten years

    ---> = a mere ten years later

    以上都是以副詞片語來表示一個時間點, 結構是「介+名」

    名詞(片語)A = 名詞(片語)B <---- B為同位語

    副詞(片語)A = 副詞(片語)B <---- 我稱B為「類似同位語」屬插入補述性質.

    Louis是把介系詞By隔離, 剩下的就是名詞(但後者隱含介系詞after, 卻是副詞性質);

    Rhody是乾脆把同位語的定義衍伸到其他詞性(但正式文法只作名詞性質).

    2013-02-06 11:12:47 補充:

    其實大家的講解都是殊途同歸的, 研讀文法的目的在於理解, 而不必汲汲於術語怎麼稱呼.

    2013-02-06 22:41:18 補充:

    我沒說錯, 果然Louis是把By隔離在外來看了, 剩下的名詞對名詞就形成同位語. 不過, 這是似是而非的見解.

    2013-02-06 22:41:28 補充:

    您說a mere ten years later = the time

    其實這兩者並不相等, 我們不可能將之代入而成"by a mere ten years later"

    因為a mere ten year "later" = "after" a mere ten years, 不可再加by;

    也就是說, 句首"By the time..."的By是不可分離來看的, 它們是副詞片語vs副詞片語, 各自要整個片語來看, 既非名詞性質但意思相同, 所以只能算是「類似同位語」.

    參考資料: 羅莉 + 英文文法
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