Cloud 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 7 年前

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Glyphosate ([N-phosphonomethyl] glycine) is a non-selective herbicide increasingly used in agricultural and forested lands worldwide since the 1990s. Glyphosate has limited mobility in soils due to its strong adsorption, but residues of its primary metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) have been found in shallow aquifers in the Netherlands. In this laboratory study, batch and column experiments were performed using two soils collected from the Maresme area near Barcelona, Spain. Measured batch sorption isotherms for glyphosate conformed to the Freundlich model. The sorption coefficients ranged from 93 to 154, suggesting that it is strongly bound to soil. Glyphosate breakthrough curves (BTCs) measured during steady, saturated water flow in soil columns showed asymmetrical behavior, which was attributed to nonequilibrium sorption and the presence of a sink due to irreversible sorption loss. Loss of glyphosate increased with residence times, with longer columns or with slower pore-water velocities, and breakthrough occurred earlier than predicted by retardation factors calculated from batch data. A two-site equilibrium/kinetic sorption model coupled with first-order sinks was fitted to the observed glyphosate BTCs to estimate the rate parameters for nonequilibrium sorption and irreversible sorption. The transport parameters obtained by numerical simulation suggest that glyphosate sorption is a kinetic process depending on the pore-water velocities and the residence time of soil solution.

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  • 晚風
    Lv 5
    7 年前
    最佳解答

    自1990年代以來,嘉磷賽([N-膦羧甲基]氨基乙酸)已經成為一種遍及全球逐漸廣泛用於農業和林地的非選擇性除草劑。由於其優異的吸收性,嘉磷賽在土壤中的流動性相當有限,但是在荷蘭的含水表層已經發現了其初級代謝物氨甲基膦酸(AMPA)的殘留。本實驗研究中,利用西班牙巴塞隆納Maresme區所採集的兩種土壤進行批量與土柱實驗。所評量的嘉磷賽吸附曲線符合Freundlich模式。其吸附係數範圍從93到154,顯示與土壤有強烈的鎖固。穩定飽和水流中的土柱所測得的嘉磷賽穿透曲線顯現不對稱行為,這歸因於不平衡吸附以及出現不可逆吸附損失所造成的受體。嘉磷賽的流失隨著殘存時間、土柱加長或者孔隙水流放慢而增加,穿透發生的比(批量資料所計算出的遲滯因子所預測)更早。利用搭配一階受體的雙點平衡/動力吸附模式適配所觀測的嘉磷賽穿透曲線以評估不平衡及不可逆吸附的速率參數。數位模擬所得到的傳輸參數顯示嘉磷賽吸附是一種取決於孔隙水流速率與土壤溶液殘存時間的動力學過程。

    參考資料: Nightwind
  • 匿名使用者
    6 年前

    瞭解一次、多一次的保障。尋找八大行業工作。必須謹慎小心一點。

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    一通電話、一次詢問。都是為自己的著想。

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