發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 7 年前

語言學概論題目求救(20點)

題目是:In the following sentence, determine whether the underlined portion forms a "constituent" or not, and provide evidence to support your decision.(簡單說就是判斷之後,寫一句合或不合文法的句子)

underlined portion 我用括號表示在句子後面,請各位幫我看看我的答案是否正確和求答案。

1. Martha bought a lovely pillow in the store.(a lovely pillow)

* It is the lovely pillow which Martha bought in the store.

* Who bought the lovely pillow in the store? Ans: Martha.

2. The man sang a beautiful song to his beautiful wife.(beautiful wife)

*(我判斷這句是合文法的,但是要怎麼寫不合文法的句子?)

3. She must quit the job.(She)

*(我判斷這句也是合文法的,但是也不知道要怎麼寫不合文法的句子。)

另外還有一題,題目是:Decide whether each of the following sentences is syntactically well-formed or not. If the answer is NO, explain what causes the ill-formedness.

1. I explained him how it works.

*(這題的答案是,這個句子缺少了解釋的內容和對誰,但是用英文要怎麼寫這個答案?)

1 個解答

評分
  • 匿名使用者
    7 年前
    最佳解答

    不好意思,我沒有語言相關背景,不過對你的題目滿有興趣的,就查了維基百科,試著做了一下,給你參考看看。

    2. 如果用pre-form substitution來判斷,

    若把beautiful wife換成her:

    * The man sang a beautiful song to his her. (ungrammatical)

    若把his beautiful wife換成her:

    * The man sang a beautiful song to her. (grammatical)

    可知"beautiful wife"不是constituent,"his beautiful wife"才是。

    3. 其實我自己試了幾種檢驗constituent的方法,

    覺得she應該是個constituent,大致都會符合那些檢驗方式。

    不過,如果你硬要造一個不合文法的句子,那就...

    用passivization來判斷:

    * The job must be quit by she. (ungrammatical)

    ---------

    關於最後面那個問題,很抱歉我沒有學過句法學,

    只能用很粗淺的英文文法術語來敘述。

    如果是我,我會從下面的觀點來想:

    正確的句子應該是:I explained to him how it works.

    解釋的內容是how it works,對象是him。

    「I explained him how it works.」這句似是而非的結構中,

    him 是indirect object,"how it works" 是direct object。

    可是英文五大句型中,

    「S+Vt+IO+DO」是授與動詞的用法,

    而explain並不是授與動詞,

    只是他的字義很像授與動詞而已= =",

    同樣狀況的動詞,常見的還有share這個字。

    若單看「I explained how it works.」的話,

    應該套用的是「S+Vt+O」這個句型,

    這裡的O即「how it works」;

    若看「I explained to him」這句,explain是不及物動詞,

    所以是「S+Vi」的句型,「to him」只是副詞的角色;

    若合起來看,「I explained to him how it works」,

    則是「S+Vt+O」的結構,

    O是「how it works」,「to him」只是副詞而已。

    所以,可以寫成「I explained to him how it works.」,

    也可把to him搬到句尾變成「I explained how it works to him .」。

    PS. 若網友有其他高見也請不吝賜教

    (但是要客氣一點不要太兇狠XDD)

    參考資料: 維基百科+自己
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