發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 7 年前

幫我翻譯 (盡量不要用翻譯軟體)

Cell physiology in the weevil Sitophilus oryzae is coordinated by three integrated genomes: nuclear, mitochondrial, and the “S. oryzae principal endosymbiont”. SOPE, a cytoplasmic bacterium (2 × 103 bacteria per specialized bacteriocyte cell and 3 × 106 bacteria per weevil) that belongs to the proteobacteria γ3-subgroup, is present in all weevils studied. We discovered a fourth prokaryotic genome in somatic and germ tissues of 57% of weevil strains of three species, S. oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, and Sitophilus granarius, distributed worldwide. We assigned this Gram-negative prokaryote to the Wolbachia group (α-proteobacteria), on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence and fluorescence in situ DNA–RNA hybridization (FISH). Both bacteria, SOPE and Wolbachia, were selectively eliminated by combined heat and antibiotic treatments. Study of bacteria involvement in this insect’s genetics and physiology revealed that SOPE, which induces the specific differentiation of the bacteriocytes, increases mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through the supply of pantothenic acid and riboflavin. Elimination of this γ3-proteobacterium impairs many physiological traits. By contrast, neither the presence nor the absence of Wolbachia significantly affects the weevil’s physiology. Wolbachia, disseminated throughout the body cells, is in particularly high density in the germ cells, where it causes nucleocytoplasmic incompatibility. The coexistence of two distinct types of intracellular proteobacteria at different levels of symbiont integration in insects illustrates the genetic complexity of animal tissue. Furthermore, evolutionary timing can be inferred: first nucleocytoplasm, then mitochondria, then SOPE, and finally Wolbachia. Symbiogenesis, the genetic integration of long-term associated members of different species, in the weevil appears to be a mechanism of speciation (with Wolbachia) and provides a means for animals to acquire new genes that permit better adaptation to the environment

3 個解答

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  • 7 年前
    最佳解答

    真的好多.......

    細胞生理學的玉米水稻由三個綜合基因組協調的象鼻蟲: 核、 線粒體,和"S.水稻主要 endosymbiont"。SOPE,proteobacteria γ3-分組,屬於細胞質細菌 (2 × 103 細菌每個專門的 bacteriocyte 細胞) 和 3 × 106 細菌每象鼻蟲是在研究了所有惡存在。我們發現了一個第四的原核基因組在體細胞和胚芽組織的象鼻蟲株的三個物種、 S.水稻、 玉米象,象 granarius,分發給全世界的 57%。我們分配此革蘭陰性的原核生物到克氏組 (α-proteobacteria),16S rDNA 序列和螢光原位 DNA–RNA 雜交 (魚) 的基礎上。這兩種細菌、 SOPE 和克氏,被選擇性地消滅了由聯合的熱和抗生素治療。細菌參與這種昆蟲的遺傳學和生理學的研究顯示 SOPE,誘使特定分化的 bacteriocytes,增加線粒體氧化磷酸化通過泛酸和核黃素的供應。此 γ3 proteobacterium 消除損害許多生理性狀。相比之下,既不存在也不缺乏克氏大大影響著象鼻蟲的生理學。克氏,傳播整個身體細胞,是在特別是高密度的生殖細胞,在那裡它造成胞核胞質連體不相容。共存的兩種不同類型的不同級別的共生體一體化在昆蟲細胞內 proteobacteria 說明了遺傳動物組織的複雜性。此外,可以推斷進化時間安排: 第一次 nucleocytoplasm,線粒體,然後 SOPE,然後最後克氏。「 共生體 」,長期相關成員的不同的物種,在象鼻蟲的遺傳整合似乎 (與克氏) 形態的一種機制,提供了一種手段來獲取新的基因,允許更好地適應環境的動物

    參考資料: me/internet
  • 匿名使用者
    7 年前

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  • 7 年前

    這種等級的文章還不能用翻譯軟體

    字數又那麼多

    @@那你慢慢等吧

    這種專業原文書

    或許有中譯本

    你在上網求助前

    應該先自己去找找

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