A.I 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 7 年前

英文文法 問題!

以下是某一段取自time magazine

George Melendez was all but dead in January of 1998, when he was pulled from the wreckage of a car that had landed in a small pond on a golf course near Houston, TX. Medics revived him but the combined brain trauma of the accident and near drowning left the then 23-year-old college student in what doctors call a minimally conscious state—awake and occasionally aware of his surroundings but incapable of producing any reliable responses—verbal or otherwise. His mother and stepfather cared for him at home, feeding him by tube, handling his bathing and toileting with the help of a part-time aide. The doctors told them not to expect much, but the parents never lost hope.

我只想問其中這一段的

the then 23-year-old college student in what doctors call a minimally conscious state

then 還有 in what 在文法上 用法是什麼意思

這句該怎麼翻意呢?

4 個解答

評分
  • 7 年前
    最佳解答

    "then" here means "at that time" (當時). However, it doesn't always mean so, for example:

    I set up the tent, and then went fishing.

    "then", in the above sentence, means "afterwards" (然後)

    "in what doctors call a minimally conscious state"

    You can take "what doctors call" out of the sentence, then you can understand it better as "in a minimally conscious state"

    Hence, "what doctors call" is just to let people know the term "minimally conscious state" is NOT used by the person who writes the statement, but refers to "what doctors say".

    2013-12-14 01:33:35 補充:

    I have a suggestion to you:

    Don't always refer back to grammar! Language is NOT governed by grammar. Grammar is just a collection of customary use of a language. It means, it has language itself first, THEN the grammar follows.

    2013-12-14 01:36:58 補充:

    Some linguists collect these customary uses of a language for their research, and we use it to see in a more general way. However, you can just learn the grammar and think you will be able to use it.

    2013-12-14 01:37:31 補充:

    Unfortunately, it doesn't work that way. You can use it is because you use it, not because you learn it or memorize it.

    2013-12-14 23:45:41 補充:

    但是我還是不習慣用中國人學習英文文法的方式去解釋

    It is hard to find people who would prefer to use non-traditional grammar explanation. After all, it is stereotyped when comes to learn English. I thank you for your comment.

    2013-12-14 23:47:31 補充:

    Of course, I also admire people like master Louis who can explain grammar so well. Such an explanation does enhance my own understanding. Thanks! Master Louis!

  • 7 年前

    Grammar is like many other luxuries in life; the less you have it, the harder you try to convince others that we don't need it.

    2013-12-18 20:40:59 補充:

    First there were people, and laws follow. I suppose we SHALL NOT give a hoot about the law!

    Some logic!

  • Louis
    Lv 7
    7 年前

    Medics revived him but the combined brain trauma of the accident and near drowning left the then 23-year-old college student in what doctors call a minimally conscious state —awake and occasionally aware of his surroundings but incapable of producing any reliable responses—verbal or otherwise.

    醫療救活了他,但因為那次意外事件所造成的腦部受傷以及溺水,讓這個發生意外當時為二十三歲的大學生一直處於一種醫生們所謂的最低意識狀態:清醒,雖偶爾知道自己四周的狀況,但無法做任可言語或其它有效的回應。

    這是一個compound sentence用but連結兩個同樣重要的對等子句

    後面的子句較複雜,你可以先看藍色部分的關鍵字來瞭解全句邏輯關係:A+B left C in D.其餘的部分是修飾語,有單字和片語,單字放其修飾的名詞之前,片語放後面。

    in what這兩個字應分開來看。what是一個[帶先行詞的關係代名詞],用來帶出一個名詞子句,當做介系詞in的受詞,即what = the state which。我們也可以把這個名詞子句改寫成形容詞子句成為:in a state which doctors call a minimally conscious state。

    then在本句是副詞,因為是說明發生事故的當時狀況,所以用了then=at that time。用then來修飾後面的形容詞23-year-old。

    破折號後面的文字是用來對前面文字加註的細部說明。

    看到超長的句子,你應先將修飾語(包括形容詞,副詞,介系詞片語等)及同位語等先行刪去,注意連接詞所形成對等或從屬關係,這樣句子的重要部分(主詞,動詞,受詞,補語)就會突顯出來,讓你看清句子的邏輯和重點。

    2013-12-14 12:20:47 補充:

    本來的句子關係是:doctors call xxx a minimally conscious state

    用關係代名詞what取代call的受詞xxx,然後移置句前,讓全句成為介系詞in的受詞:

    in what doctors call a minimally conscious state

    a minimally conscious state是受詞補語,在受詞移前後,造成閱讀困難(受詞補語可能被誤認為call的受詞)。

    2013-12-14 12:30:31 補充:

    He called his child John.主詞+動詞+受詞+受詞補語

    What do you call this flower?受詞+主詞+動詞+受詞補語

    因為問句倒裝,所以將疑問代名詞what置句前,並加上助動詞do在主詞前。this flower是受詞補語。

    2013-12-14 17:25:27 補充:

    medics =醫生們

    2013-12-14 19:13:58 補充:

    更正: What did you call this flower?=受詞補語+主詞+動詞+受詞

    這裡的疑問代名詞what是主詞補語,this flower才是受詞

    弄錯了,抱歉。

  • ?
    Lv 4
    7 年前

    then是那麼

    in what是所謂

    參考資料: 自己
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