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匿名使用者 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 6 年前

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The last category, informational cascades, describes a condition in which imitation will occur with certainty. Even as simple a form of social interaction as imitation

offers a crucial benefit: it allows an individual to exploit information possessed by

others about the environment. When a friend is fleeing rapidly, it may be good to run

even before seeing the sabre-tooth tiger chasing around the bend. The benefit from

imitating others, and of taking into account the payoff outcomes of others, is fundamental, as evidenced by the observation of such behaviour in many kinds of

animals.

Even when imitation probably does not occur through a ‘rational’ process of analysis, the proclivity to imitate may be well attuned to costs and benefits through the guidance of natural selection. We will use the word imitation broadly to include

sub-rational mechanisms that induce an individual to be influenced by the behaviour

of another individual to behave the same way.

There is an extensive literature in both psychology and zoology on imitation in

many animal species, both in the wild and experimentally (see, e.g., Gibson and

Hoglund, 1992; Giraldeau, 1997; Dugatkin, 1992). Imitation has been documented

among birds, fish, and mammals in foraging and diet choices, selection of mates,

selection of territories, and in means of avoiding predators. Indeed, Blackmore (1999,

e.g., pp. 74 – 81) suggests that in early hominids there was strong selection for ability

to imitate innovative, complex behaviours, so that the evolution of large brain size was

linked to the rise of the propensity to imitate. Starting within an hour of birth, humans

also engage in imitation. There is also contagion in the emotions of individuals

interacting as groups (see, e.g., Barsade, 2001).

An individual is said to be in an informational

2 個解答

評分
  • 6 年前
    最佳解答

    最後一類,信息瀑布,描述了模仿將發生肯定的條件。社會互動,模仿,甚至簡單的表單

    提供了一個關鍵的好處:它允許個人開發者所擁有的信息

    別人的環境。當一個朋友被迅速逃離,它可能是很好的運行

    甚至在看到劍齒虎追逐周圍的彎曲。從受益

    模仿別人,考慮到別人的回報成果,才是根本,就證明了這種行為的多種觀察

    動物。

    即使模仿可能是通過分析一個“理性”的過程不發生,則傾向模仿可能通過自然選擇的指導下很好地切合成本和效益。我們將用這個詞仿廣泛,包括

    誘導個人通過行為的影響子理性機制

    另一個人的行為方式相同。

    有心理學和動物學在大量的文獻上仿

    許多動物物種,無論是在野外和實驗(見,例如,吉布森和

    後葛蘭,1992; Giraldeau ,1997; Dugatkin ,1992)。模仿已被記錄

    鳥類,魚類和哺乳動物在覓食和飲食選擇,選擇隊友之間,

    選擇的領土,並在躲避捕食者的手段。事實上,布萊克莫爾( 1999年,

    例如,第74 - 81 )表明,在早期原始人類有強大的選擇的能力

    模仿創新的,複雜的行為,使大腦神經尺寸的演變是

    掛傾向模仿的崛起。誕生,人類的一小時內開始

    還搞模仿。也有蔓延的個人情緒

    作為群體互動(參見,例如,巴薩德, 2001) 。

    一個人據說是在一個信息

    參考資料: ME
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  • 羅莉
    Lv 7
    6 年前

    翻譯網站的翻譯真是慘不忍睹!

    知識+是發問疑難的地方, 不可以當翻譯社來用, 版規禁止大量內容尋求翻譯, 超過5行就違規.

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