關於「毒樹毒果理論」與美國憲法增修條文第四條之提問

在「蘇西的世界」一片中-琳西·沙蒙(Lindsey Salmon),女主角蘇西的妹妹,是在闖入了兇手喬治·哈維(George Harvey),(闖入當時尚未確定其犯行,故當時僅為兇嫌)的住家中,並在翻箱倒櫃之後,才在其臥室床邊的地板夾縫所掩蓋的地板空間中,發現了兇手親筆紀錄了-當前所做的本案及累犯之其他案件,甚至是即將犯下對琳西·沙蒙自身姦殺分屍,其描述巨細靡遺的犯罪筆記.

在影片中,琳西·沙蒙對家人提出了此項證據之後,雖不知家人如何處理這項證據(說不定小說本體有描述,但我沒能看到小說),但警方的動作相當迅速,隨即搜索了兇手的住家.只是,根據毒果樹理論,琳西·沙蒙所取得的證據乃是以非法手段取得-故應為毒樹.即使是其姊蘇西·沙蒙(Susie Salmon)有被報為失蹤人口,警方有過搜尋的行動,但身為司法部門的所轄法院,亦應根據美國憲法增修條文第四條而不對兇手住家發出搜索令吧?

所以影片中的警方行動若屬真實情境下合法行為的話,其理由會是以下的哪項呢?

(一)是因為其應為證據排除法則(exclusionary evidence rule)所排除的毒樹證據(犯行筆記),乃為正當理由(probable cause)而使所轄法院得以發出搜索令?

(二)還是說,因為這份證據,非為警察人員(政府人員)所取得的,故而不適用證據排除法則(exclusionary evidence rule)呢?

已更新項目:

Gary、值星官,謝謝你們的回答跟回應.

總結你們的意見,是這樣的-

值星官:「美國憲法增修條文第四條沒有規定私人必須符合毒樹毒果原則,所以將獲得的證據交給警方的話,就可以當做呈堂證供.」

Gary:「雖然美國憲法增修條文第四條沒有特別限制保護跟約束的對象(不管是國家或私人),但是當琳西·沙蒙(Lindsey Salmon)蒐集喬治·哈維(George Harvey)的證據時,就是國家行為,必須受到美國憲法增修條文第四條的約束.

而在現實中,筆記必須是合法取得,案件才能成立.」

是這樣的意思嗎?

所以「蘇西的世界」所敘述的情節,是不能成立的-是嗎?

3 個解答

評分
  • Gary
    Lv 7
    7 年前
    最佳解答

    It is a movie (and a novel). Don't take it seriously.

    In reality, there is no case as the note has been obtained illegally.

    2014-03-03 14:47:49 補充:

    值星官:

    Your comment has flaws.

    1. The Constitution, as well as the amendments, is intended to protect and guarantee rights of the people. It does not specify on whom they are protecting from (although 4th Amendment is mainly used against the government).

    2014-03-03 14:49:27 補充:

    2. Gathering evidence for criminal prosecution is a state action. Therefore, whoever does the gathering is a state actor. In this case, Lindsey Salmon acted on behalf of the state. So she is bound with the 4th Amendment.

    2014-03-04 14:09:25 補充:

    You get my portion correct.

  • 7 年前

    我是問法律與正義,不是問兼差與賺錢-THRZFFGIIPEN.

  • 7 年前

    The Constitution is protecting the people from the government. Therefore the fourth amendment does not apply to private citizens. The evidence, if turned over to the police, can be used in the court of law. The government did not violate the fourth amendment IN ORDER TO obtain the evidence.

    2014-03-02 14:30:45 補充:

    The evidence in the store would serve as probable cause for search warrant. In reality, any creative work requires supplemental evidence to form probable cause

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