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冥帝 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 6 年前

求高手幫忙翻譯一篇英文的文章-20點

因為太長分段補充><求翻譯及本文的主旨重點...萬分感謝

In colonial America there was no physical education as we think of it. The colonies made attempts to start schools, bat their primary concern was to provide the rudiments of a practical education: learning to read, write, end handle basic mathematics. Physical education activities (such as those being developed in Europe) would have been considered a frill at that time. The colonies of the New World were expanding into wilderness areas, and the pioneers, who frequently faced the threat of attack by Indians, usually got more outdoor exercise than a European would receive in the most educationally advanced school of the day. During this period the non-work physical activities of the people were primarily recreational activities.

The developing colonies were diverse culture, a mixture of many nationalities and religious groups. The Puritans in New England were opposed to many activities that might be seen as pleasurable. They considered such activities to be either distractions from more serious concerns or questionable because they might eventually lead to sin. The Puritans were the most negative group of the colonial settlers regarding the pursuit of physical pleasures, but the Quakers, who settled in Pennsylvania, were also strict in their outlook. The Virginia colony, predominantly Anglican, was officially opposed to many recreational activities in Its early days. Other groups in the New world, such as the Dutch in today’s New York City and Hudson River valley areas, were more inclined to allow such activities. However, official policy and public practice rarely agreed with each other. People still participated as they pleased.

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The colonies, which were widely separated in their early days, might be compared to the ancient Greek city-states: All were of the same nation, but they were more competitive than cooperative. The spirit of cooperation among the states was noticeably thin even during the Revolutionary War.

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After the revolution, the national was still largely rural and widespread, so there was little spirit of nationalism. People were from Massachusetts, or Virginia, or Pennsylvania, rather than from the United states.

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The hard nature of the life of the settlers led to the gradual development of a society far more tolerant of differences among people than had been the case in their native European countries. Ancestors had little to do with a settlers ultimate survival or value to colonial society.

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As the political development of the colonies proceeded, strong regional antagonism developed among three groups of people that were established in many states.

In colonial society, the new elite were the residents of the coastal areas that had been settled earliest.

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Many of the these people were well-to-do traders. They were better educated than the other groups, and they had regular contact with Europe. The second social group included the people of the piedmont and foothill areas, who were primarily farmers.

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They lived in less settled areas than the coastal dwellers and had little in common with them, either in wealth or in politics, The third group, the settlers of the still-unopened areas, was gradually moving into the mountains and beyond.

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They were almost as out of touch with the coast as they were with Europe. They had some ties with the Piedmont farmers, for often they were farmers themselves. but they had nothing in common with the coastal people.

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The result of the differences among these three groups of people was a long period of political struggle in the state legislatures between the people in the East, who had the power, and those In the West, who did not.

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The school in the colonies were copies of the European schools of the time. The first were Latin grammar schools, which proved to be of little value and were gradually replaced by academies that focused primarily on basic instruction.

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Advanced educational institutions, also modeled after European schools, were primarily for men who were going Into the ministry. An example is Harvard university, which was founded in Massachusetts in 1636.

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Physical activities served almost no official function in colonial education, but many unorganized recreational games and sports were a form of entertainment. The daily activities of the pioneers involved the survival skills used in hunting, fishing,

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and swimming and required physical activities such as running, jumping, lifting heavy objects, and fighting. Dance gradually became more acceptable as the Puritans became more affluent.

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Although no real physical education existed in colonial times, the idea was supported by some-prominent men. Thomas Jefferson wrote in support of physical education, and Benjamin Franklin was a swimming enthusiast, although swimming was considered a quaint but questionable custom in his time.

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O ne of the few educators who supported physical activities in the schools was Samuel Moody, headmaster of one of the first private boarding schools in America. He promoted physical activities as vital to the health of the students,

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but most activities were the strictly traditional ones inherited from European backgrounds.

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There was little nationalistic spirit in the United States until after the War of 1812. Americans shared a basic reluctance to submit to any centralized form of government. Thus nationalism was not the strong force in promoting physical education that it was in the European nations in the late 1700

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The second impetus in Europe, pursuing physical training to serve the military needs of the country, was also weaker in the United States. The Americans were concerned with the strength and fitness of the military only in times of war,

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so physical training was of no concern during the rapid expansion across the Appalachian Mountains and on toward the great American Midwest. While some military school were being formed during the early 1800s,

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the idea of military instruction did not become popular until the time of the Civil War in the 1860s.

3 個解答

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  • 6 年前
    最佳解答

    在殖民時期的美國,沒有體育課,因為我們認為它。殖民地做出嘗試啟動學校,蝙蝠他們的主要關注點是提供一個實用教育的雛形:學習讀,寫,結束處理基本的數學。體育教學活動(如正在開發的歐洲)會被認為是褶邊在那個時候。新世界的菌落擴大到荒野地區,和先驅,誰經常面對攻擊印度人的威脅,通常有更多的戶外運動比歐洲將獲得當天的教育上最先進的學校。在此期間,人的非工作體力活動,主要的休閒活動。

    發展中菌落呈多元的文化,多民族和宗教團體的混合物。清教徒在新英格蘭被反對任何可能被視為愉悅的許多活動。他們認為這樣的活動是不是分心的更嚴重的問題或疑問的,因為他們可能最終導致犯罪。清教徒對於追求物質享樂的殖民定居者的最陰性組,但貴格會,誰在賓夕法尼亞州定居,也嚴於他們的視野。弗吉尼亞殖民地,主要是英國聖公會,正式反對許多娛樂活動,在其初期。在新的世界其他群體,如荷蘭在今天的紐約和哈得遜河谷地區,更傾向於允許這種活動。然而,官方的政策和公共實踐很少同意對方。人們仍然參加,因為他們pleased.The殖民地,被廣泛分離在他們的初期,可能會比古希臘城邦:所有的都是一樣的民族,但他們比合作更具有競爭力。合作各州之間的精神是顯瘦,即使在​​革命War.After革命,國家仍然主要是農村和普遍,所以有民族主義精神一點。人是來自馬薩諸塞州,弗吉尼亞州或,或賓夕法尼亞州,而不是從移民的生命聯合states.The很難自然導致社會更加寬容的人之間的差異不是一直這樣在家鄉的逐步發展歐洲國家。祖先有一點做一個定居者最終的生存或價值殖民society.As殖民地的政治發展出發,在三組的成立,在許多國家,人們開發了強大的區域對抗。

    在殖民社會,新的精英是那​​已經解決了這些人的earliest.Many沿海地區居民良好的to-do貿易商。他們比其他群體的教育,他們與歐洲的定期接觸。第二個社會團體包括皮埃蒙特大區和山麓地帶的人,誰是主要farmers.They住在不到落腳的地方比沿海居民和共同與他們有一點,無論是在財富或政治,第三組,定居在仍然未開封地區,逐漸遷入山區和beyond.They幾乎是不與海岸淡淡的,因為他們是與歐洲。他們曾與皮埃蒙特農民一些聯繫,為他們往往是農民自己。但他們沒有什麼共同點,這三個群體的人之間的差異沿海萬人。結果是人們在東方,誰的權力之間的州議會政治鬥爭的漫長時期,那些在西方,誰也not.The學校的殖民地是當時的歐洲學校的副本。第一是拉丁文文法學校,這被證明是沒有多大價值,並通過該學院主要專注於基本instruction.Advanced教育機構,歐洲的學校後也仿照,主要是男人誰要去服事逐漸被取代。一個例子是哈佛大學,成立於馬薩諸塞州1636.Physical活動在殖民地教育服務幾乎沒有正式的功能,但很多無組織的休閒遊戲和運動是一種娛樂形式。先驅們的日常活動涉及狩獵,捕魚用的生存技能,游泳和所需的體力活動,如跑,跳,提重物,和戰鬥。舞蹈作為清教徒變得更加affluent.Although存在於殖民地時代沒有真正的體育課逐漸變得更加可以接受的,這個想法是由一些,突出人的支持。托馬斯·杰斐遜寫道,支持體育,和本傑明·富蘭克林是一位游泳愛好者,雖然游泳被認為是一個古樸,但可疑的自定義在他誰支持身體活動,在學校是撒母耳穆迪,一個校長的一些教育工作者time.One第一私立寄宿學校在美國。他促進身體活動,以學生的健康是至關重要的,但大多數活動是嚴格傳統的歐洲backgrounds.There繼承了小民族主義精神,在美國,直到1812年戰爭之後。美國人共享的一個基本不願接受政府的任何集中的形式。因此,民族主義是不是在推動體育的強大力量,這是在歐洲國家在歐洲後期1700The第二推動力,追求體能訓練,以報效國家的軍事需要,也是在美國弱。美國人擔心的軍隊只有在戰爭時期的力量和體能,所以在整個阿巴拉契亞山脈和快速擴張向偉大的美國中西部的體能訓練是不關心的。儘管一些軍事學校進行了在19世紀初形成,軍事指令的想法並沒有成為流行,直到南北戰爭的19世紀60年代的時候。

    參考資料: Myself
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  • 6 年前

    大哥可以幫幫忙嗎...

    真的求助無門.....

    只怪我英文破..沒學好

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  • 6 年前

    孩子 你放棄吧 -.-

    雖然提供20點

    但是.... 太長了

    建議就是....分段吧

    正常回答翻譯的 400字是一次翻譯回答的最大上限 (勉強)

    不然就挑幾句你不會的吧 痾......

    因為很現實的就是

    翻譯又臭又長的文章→沒錢領

    在外面 這種至少算字 還有半毛錢可領

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