土 金 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 6 年前

by的用法? 我不太會

The city plan to cut pollution by thirty percent.

這個城市計畫要減少百分之三十的汙染。

請問此句中的by翻譯及用法為何?

3 個解答

評分
  • Johnny
    Lv 7
    6 年前
    最佳解答

    版大您好 我查詢了一些文法書 整理出來 供您參考

    (以下為網路資料;請注意我劃底線及粗體字的地方 應該可以幫到您)

    by 被;藉由;在旁邊

    A 當介系詞

    1.在被動語態裡,我們用by表示「被…」,指出動作是什麼人做的;但「用…」,指出動作是用什麼工具完成的,則用with:

    The letter was evidently written by a foreigner.

    這封信顯然是外國人寫的。

    She was blinded by the bright lights.

    她被刺眼的燈光照得什麼都看不見。

    His skull had been crushed with a heavy object.

    他的骨頭曾被重物撞擊。

    2.by也表示「藉由…」,指出藉由什麼方式完成一件事:

    She made a bit of money by selling her paintings.

    她藉著賣自己畫的畫賺了一點錢。

    May I pay by credit card?

    我可以用信用卡付款嗎?

    She’s arriving in London by air this afternoon.

    她今天下午會搭機抵達倫敦。

    4.by可以當作指出地點的介系詞

    4.1by指「在…旁邊」:

    There was a low table by her chair.

    她的椅子旁有個矮桌子。

    4.2by也有「經過」的意思:

    The bus flew by me before I could stop it.

    我還沒來得及招手,公車就從我身邊飛過去了。

    5.by也可以當做指出時間的介系詞

    5.1by表示「在…的時候」或「在…之前」:

    By five thirty she was feeling pretty hungry.

    五點半的時候,她覺得肚子很餓。

    5.2by day指「白天的時候」,by night指「晚上的時候」:

    Owls sleep by day and hunt by night.

    貓頭鷹白天睡覺,晚上獵食。

    6.by nature指「生性…」:

    He was quite a shy person by nature.

    他是個生性非常害羞的人。

    7.by trade、by professional指「以…為職業」

    Her next boyfriend was Jack, who was a psychologist by profession.

    她下一個男朋友是傑克,一名心理學家。

    8.by law指「依據法律」:

    Employers must by law employ workers from minority groups.

    依據法律,雇主必須雇用屬於少數族群的員工。

    B 表達乘法、除法、量度和速度

    Divide twenty-seven by three.

    27除以3。

    Four multiplied by three is twelve.

    4乘以3等於12。

    The bedroom was about ten meters by six (= 10m long and 6m wide).

    臥室的大小約為10公尺乘6公尺。

    The situation was worsening by the hour (=very quickly).

    情況驟然變壞。

    Prices have risen by an average of 4% this year.

    今年的價格平均上漲了4%。

    Interest rates are to be cut by 1%.

    利率會縮減1%。

    Her sister was taller by at least two inches.

    她姊姊至少高了兩吋。

    I only missed my train by a couple of minutes.

    我才差幾分鐘就趕上火車了。

    little by little(一點一點地)、day by day(一天一天地)這種說法用來表示持續漸進的過程:

    Add the milk bit by bit.

    一點一點地加入牛奶。

    One by one the musicians left the stage.

    樂手一個一個地退下舞台。

    前文畢

    總結:使用方法及翻譯,如上文法書所述(及感謝分類版主的提點)

    青雲有路志為梯,學海無涯勤是岸

    以上 (長知識,受教了,感謝!)

    希能幫到您

    祝順心

    參考資料: 網路
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  • 6 年前

    >這家不錯*****買幾次啦真的一樣

    体咞凡伤卼

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  • 6 年前

    By the way, "plan" needs to be "plans".

    Using "by" is for showing how much something has changed.

    2014-04-08 11:52:40 補充:

    Let me give you some more examples:

    House price will rise by 15% this year.

    He missed the train by a couple of minutes yesterday.

    Usain Bolt broke the world record by 3 seconds.

    "by" in your sentence, you can translate it as "按" or "以......計算".

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