Bear 發問時間: 教育與參考其他:教育 · 7 年前

問英文翻譯 對我來說有點困難...

Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers. One author, paraphrasing Samuel P. Huntington's writings in The Soldier and the State, has summarized the civilian control ideal as "the proper subordination of a competent professional military to the ends of policy as determined by civilian authority".

Civilian control is often seen as a prerequisite feature of a stable, liberal democracy. Use of the term in scholarly analyses tends to take place in the context of a democracy governed by elected officials, though the subordination of the military to political control is not unique to these societies. One example is the People's Republic of China. Mao Zedong stated that "Our principle is that the Party commands the gun, and the gun must never be allowed to command the Party," reflecting the primacy of the Communist Party of China (and communist parties in general) as decision-makers in Marxist-Leninist and Maoist theories of democratic centralism.

As noted by University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill professor Richard H. Kohn "civilian control is not a fact but a process". Affirmations of respect for the values of civilian control notwithstanding, the actual level of control sought or achieved by the civilian leadership may vary greatly in practice, from a statement of broad policy goals that military commanders are expected to translate into operational plans, to the direct selection of specific targets for attack on the part of governing politicians. National Leaders with limited experience in military matters often have little choice but to rely on the advice of professional military commanders trained in the art and science of warfare to inform the limits of policy; in such cases, the military establishment may enter the bureaucratic arena to advocate for

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最後一段少了一些

the bureaucratic arena to advocate for or against a particular course of action, shaping the policy-making process and blurring any clear-cut lines of civilian control.

2 個已更新項目:

我如果需要用google翻譯我就不需要在這裡發問了吧

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  • 00
    Lv 7
    7 年前
    最佳解答

    在文官控制軍隊的是在軍事和政治學的地方,一個國家的戰略決策中的平民政治領導的手中,而不是職業軍官負有最終責任的教條。一個作者,意譯塞繆爾·P·亨廷頓的著作中的士兵與國家,總結了文官控制的理想是“一個稱職的職業軍人的適當服從政策的兩端由文職當局確定” 。

    民警控制往往被視為一個穩定的,自由民主的先決條件功能。在學術分析中使用的術語往往發生在由選舉產生的官員管轄的民主國家的背景下,儘管軍方對政治控制的從屬關係是不是唯一的這些社會。一個例子是中國的人民共和國。毛澤東指出:“我們的原則是黨指揮槍,而槍決不容許指揮黨”,體現了中國共產黨(和一般的共產黨)的首要地位作為決策者的馬克思主義列寧主義和民主集中製毛主義理論。

    正如由北卡羅來納大學教堂山分校教授理查德H.科恩的“平民控制是不是事實,而是一個過程” 。尊重平民的控制值的誓詞雖然如此,控制的實際水平尋求或由文職領導人實現在實踐中可能相差很大,從廣泛的政策目標的聲明,軍事指揮官預計將轉化為作戰計劃,以直接選擇用於對執政的政治家的一部分攻擊的具體目標。在軍事方面的經驗有限的國家領導人往往別無選擇,只能依靠訓練有素的戰爭,告知政策界限的藝術和科學專業的軍事指揮官的意見;在這種情況下,軍隊編制可能進入官僚舞台滿心歡喜官僚舞台提倡或反對行動的特定課程倡導,塑造的決策過程和模糊的任何鮮明的線條民警控制的。

  • 7 年前

    下面的網址應該對你有幫助

    http://phi008780420.pixnet.net/blog

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