一些英文句子的疑問

1.But pro-Russian separatists have disrupted voting in the east, stopping many polling stations from opening and smashing up ballot boxes. 以上的句子smash代表砸爛,但不懂為何寫成smash up ? smash up 應該代表是車禍的意思不是嗎? 2.There were no polling stations open in Donetsk city, and across the region only seven out of 12 district electoral... 顯示更多 1.But pro-Russian separatists have disrupted voting in the east, stopping many polling stations from opening and smashing up ballot boxes.
以上的句子smash代表砸爛,但不懂為何寫成smash up ? smash up 應該代表是車禍的意思不是嗎?
2.There were no polling stations open in Donetsk city, and across the region only seven out of 12 district electoral commissions were operating.
這段話該怎麼解讀呢?Donetsk city沒有任何投票所 , 而包含12個區域中只有7個投票所當時正常運作<-這樣的解讀是正確的嗎?
3.Confectionary tycoon Petro Poroshenko, known as the "chocolate king", is the favourite to win.
其中的Confectionary是什麼?拼錯字了嗎?
4."Perhaps the most important election in Ukraine since independence in 1991 is simply not going to happen in one of the country's biggest cities."
這是其中一個記者對於烏克蘭大選的看法,"也許自從烏克蘭1991獨立以來最重要的大選絕對不會發生於國家的任何一個重要城市" 這翻譯有錯嗎?不是很能理解他講這句話的用意

更新: A BBC correspondent says reforms could include less regulation and less focus on economic austerity policies, while measures to boost growth and create jobs could address voter discontent.
請問句子中的address代表什麼呢?
更新 2: Mr Van Rompuy also told reporters that he would hold talks with the political groups to be formed in the European Parliament on who will be named to head the next Commission, the EU's executive arm.
這段話確實的意義是什麼?不是很懂
更新 3: Amateur footage posted online appears to show the aftermath of the helicopter being downed, as the BBC's Mark Lowen reports
其中為什麼要加being ? 為何不是 was 或 is ?
感謝您的回答
更新 4: "These criminal acts of the enemies of the Ukrainian people will not go unpunished," he was quoted as saying by the Unian news agency.
unpunished看起來像是被動式,為什麼不需要be動詞?
我懲罰你 I punish you
你被我懲罰 You was punished by me
這樣對嗎?
2 個解答 2