chubby 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 6 年前

翻譯 語言學文章

由於語言學有許多專有名詞,懇請大家幫我翻譯 !!!

The phonemic representations are minimally specified because some features or feature values are predictable. For example, in English all nasal (鼻音)consonants are voiced, so we do not need to specify voicing in the feature round for back vowels (母音). If Table 6.6 was strictly phonemic, then instead of a + in the voice row for m, and ŋ , the cells would be the left blank, as would the cells in the round row of the Table 6.5 for u, ʊ, o, and ɔ. Such underspecification reflects the redundancy in the phonology, which is also part of a speaker’s knowledge of the sound system. The phonemic representation should include only the nonpredictable, distinctive features of the phonemes in a word. The phonetic representation, derivedby applying the phonological rules, includes all the linguistically relevant phonetic aspscts of the sound. It does not include all of the physical properties of the soundsof an utterance, however, because the physical signal may vary in many ways that have little to do with the phonological system.

The absolute pitch of the sound, the rate of the speech, or its loudness is not linguistically significant. The phonetic transcription is therefore also an abstraction from the physical signal; it includes the nonvariant phonetic aspects of the utterances, those features that remain relatively constant from speaker to speaker and fromone time to another.

Although the specific rules of phonology differ language to language, the kind of rules, what they do, and the natural classes they refer to are universal.

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  • 6 年前
    最佳解答

    語言學英翻中The phonemic representations are minimally specified because some features or feature values are predictable. For example, in English all nasal (鼻音)consonants are voiced, so we do not need to specify voicing in the feature round for back vowels (母音). If Table 6.6 was strictly phonemic, then instead of a + in the voice row for m, and ŋ , the cells would be the left blank, as would the cells in the round row of the Table 6.5 for u, ʊ, o, and ɔ. Such underspecification reflects the redundancy in the phonology, which is also part of a speaker’s knowledge of the sound system. The phonemic representation should include only the nonpredictable, distinctive features of the phonemes in a word. The phonetic representation, derivedby applying the phonological rules, includes all the linguistically relevant phonetic aspscts of the sound. It does not include all of the physical properties of the soundsof an utterance, however, because the physical signal may vary in many ways that have little to do with the phonological system.音韻表徵具有最小的特定性,因為其某些功能或特徵值是可預見。例如,在英語當中所有的發音均用鼻音發出,所以無需顯示後母音的發音特徵。若表6.6屬嚴格音素,則非屬m、ŋ音列的a +,空格內容空白,如同表6.5中u、ʊ、o、ɔ空格一樣。這樣的非特定現象反映出音韻中的冗餘性,這也成為發聲系統發言者知識的一部份。音韻表徵應只包括一個字的音素中不可預測性不同的特徵。音韻表徵藉由音韻規則表現,包括聲音所有語言相關的各方面,但它並不包括所有發聲上的物理特性,因為此物理信號在許多方面跟音韻系統少有關係。 The absolute pitch of the sound, the rate of the speech, or its loudness is not linguistically significant. The phonetic transcription is therefore also an abstraction from the physical signal; it includes the nonvariant phonetic aspects of the utterances, those features that remain relatively constant from speaker to speaker and fromone time to another.

    聲音的絕對音調、說話速度或其響度不具有語言上的重要性。因此,拼音也是來自物理信號中的抽象展現,它包括發聲上的話語的非變音方面,這些特徵時常與各個發言者具有持續的相關性。 Although the specific rules of phonology differ language to language, the kind of rules, what they do, and the natural classes they refer to are universal.雖然不同的語言各有不同的音韻特定規則、規則種類、作為和所謂的普遍自然分類。

  • 6 年前

    no offense,

    如果沒有語言學的知識, 有些翻譯會...........

    拿最簡單的一句來說,

    " For example, in English all nasal (鼻音)consonants are voiced,"

    翻譯為"例如,在英語當中所有的發音均用鼻音發出",

    這一看就知道有問題,

    =>這句的意思是, 例如, 在英文中 所有鼻音子音(m, n, ng) 都是有聲的!!!!

    2014-11-03 21:01:03 補充:

    不過英文的確有所謂的鼻母音, 用"~"表示,

    不過不是這個nasal consonants

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