急件: 字彙與閱讀 3. 英翻中
When doctors examine a ticklish patient,they place the patient’s hands over theirs during the exam to prevent thetickling sensation. Why does thiswork? Because no matterhow ticklish you may be, you can’t tickle yourself. Go ahead. Try it. The reason is that withevery move you make, part of your brain is busy predicting the sensoryconsequences of that movement. Forinstance, as we write, we are unaware of the feel of the chair and the textureof our socks. Yet we’d immediatelynotice a tap on the shoulder. If theonly information your brain received was pure touch sensation, you wouldn’t beable to tell whether someone was punching your shoulder or whether you’d justbumped into a wall. Since you’d want toreact very differently to those two situations, it’s important for your brainto be able to tell them apart.譯: Howdoes your brain accomplish this goal? Tostudy this, scientists in London developed, of all things, a ticklingmachine. When a person presses a button,a robot arm brushes a piece of foam across the person’s own hand. If the robot arm brushes the hand as soon asthe person presses the button, the person feels the sensation, but it doesn’ttickle. However, a delay of one-fifth ofa second is enough to fool the brain into thinking the robot’s touch has beendelivered by someone else-and then it tickles.譯: This means that some brain region must be able to distinguish your owntouch from someone else’s. Theexperimenters found one: the cerebellum,whose name means “little brain.” Thecerebellum is in an ideal location for distinguishing expected from unexpectedsensations. It receivessensory information of nearly every type. In addition, it receives a copy of all the movement commands sent out bythe motor centers of the brain.
For this reason, researchers suggest that the cerebellum uses the movement commands to make a prediction of the consequences of each movement. If this prediction matches the actual sensory information, then the brain knows it’s safe to ignore the sensation because it’s not important.
If reality does not match the prediction, them something surprising has happened－and you might need to pay attention.
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2.One of Swap Tree’s key features (characteristics) is that you can find out the quality of items.
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1.You can’t tickle because your brain predicts the
consequences(outcome) of all your movements, so there is no surprise, and you only feel a light touch instead of a tickle.
2.If our brain only told us that all physical contest was pure(total) touch sensation, we wouldn’t be able to distinguish (tell) a friendly touch from an unfriendly one.
3.The development of the “ ticking machine” helped scientists
accomplish (achieve) their goal, which was to prove why we cannot tickle ourselves.
4.If the robot’s touch on the “ tickling machine” does not happen immediately after the person pushes the button, that person’s brain is fooled (tricked), and the person believes someone else touched them.
5.The cerebellum is the region (part) of the brain whose name means
- twntnacysLv 75 年前最佳解答
當醫生檢查一個搔癢的病人，在檢查時將病人的手放在自己的手上以免感到搔癢，這有什麼作用呢？因為不管你感到多麼癢，你自己都無法感受到抓癢的感覺。可以試試看！其理由就是當你進行某個動作時，你的大腦有某部份正預測此動作可能造成的結果。例如，我們無法感受到椅子和襪子的材質。但我們無法立刻注意到對肩膀的拍打，如果你大腦得到的資訊只是觸覺，你無法瞭解到誰碰觸你的肩膀或者意識到是否會撞牆。因為你對這兩種狀況在反應上是非常不同的，重要的是你的大腦要能夠區分這兩種狀況。 你的大腦如何完成此目標呢？要研究此問題，倫敦的科學家開發出1台搔癢機，當有人按下按鍵，機器手臂即可在該人的手上抹上一層泡沫。若機器手臂刷着手而手也同時按下按鍵時，這個人可感受到這個動作但無法感受到搔癢的狀況。但只要有約1/5秒鐘的延遲即足以讓大腦感受到其他人促使機器手臂的碰觸和搔癢。 即表示某些大腦區域可用於感受到自己或他人的搔癢動作，實驗發現到1個事實：小腦可用於區分預期和非預期性的情境感受。小腦可節省幾乎各種不同的資訊，此外，也可接受大腦動作中心傳送的所有動作指令。因此，研究人員建議藉由小腦的動作指令用於預測各種動作的結果。若預測符合實際感受到的資訊時，大腦藉可知道忽略這些資訊是安全的，因為這些不是重要的資訊內容。若實際狀況與預測不符時，即表示有意外的事發生，你該注意此狀況。