Kookie
Lv 5
Kookie 發問時間: 社會與文化語言 · 2 年前

Sentence Correction?

_____________________________________________ that the success of its state building projects depended on the welfare of its people.

A.) By the mid-1700s, when it began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague, the French government had fully realized

B.) Until the mid-1700s, when it had begun a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague, the French government had fully realized

C.) By the mid-1700s the French government began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague, when it fully realized

D.) The French government began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague by the mid-1700s, fully realizing

E.) When the French government began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague, it fully realized by the mid-1700s

Which answer is correct and why?

You may answer in Chinese or English. Thank you.

3 個解答

評分
  • Kevin
    Lv 7
    2 年前
    最佳解答

    You can rephrase the sentence as:

    By the mid-1700s, the French government had fully realized that the success of its state building projects depended on the welfare of its people, and it began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague.

    The answer is A.

    Answer B could not be corrected, as "until" has no place in this context.

    Answer C should be corrected as:

    In the mid-1700s the French government began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague, when it had fully realized ...

    Answer D should be corrected as:

    The French government began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague in the mid-1700s, having fully realized ...

    Answer E should be corrected as:

    When the French government began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague in the mid-1700s, it had fully realized ...

  • 2 年前

    1.) timeline action of past perfect tense

    There are several usages of past perfect tense and the specific use in this sentence is about :

    - Duration Before Something in the Past for Non-Continuous Verbs (i.e. the stative verb realize)

    O(had realised) --------(duration)--------X(began) the second point of action in the past which happened in mid-1700s

    typical example from a grammar book:

    By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.

    "By" refers to [possibly before and no later than X point of time]

    (note: duration of state can be implicit)

    Now applying the structure to this sentence:

    By "the time" (that) the French government began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague, it had realized (for some years) that ....

    As the point of time is about the mid-1700s, we can further construct the sentence as:

    By the mid-1700s, "when" the French government began ..., it had "fully" realized that .....

    2.) By ("no later than") vs Until ("up to")

    until = up to the point in time (something continues to happen but stops at the point of time)

    not until = not before a particular time or event

    Rewriting the sentence with "not until":

    It was not until the mid-1700s that the French government (finally) began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague, after it had "fully" realized that the success ...

    (It may refer to a plan or willingness, rather than just a time sequence of two events as expressed in the answer A).

    *** rewriting with until

    The French government did not begin a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague, until it had fully realized that the success ..

    (the timing is different from the answer A)

    .

    3.) perfect participle construction as indicated in Kevn's answer D

    Having fully realized that ..., the French government began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague in the mid-1700s.

    Remember, participle phrases give information about condition, reason, result or time.

    Yes, we can use perfect participle to emphasize that one event happened before another. However, it could also imply a cause-and-effect relationship.

    1. time (as in a complete adverbial clause)

    After it had fully realized that ..., the French government began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague in the mid-1700s.

    2. result (as in a complete adverbial clause)

    Because it had fully realized that ..., the French government began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague in the mid-1700s.

  • YIP
    Lv 7
    2 年前

    By the mid-17th century the French government began a concerted effort to prevent famine and plague, when it fully realized that the success of its state building projects depended on the welfare of its people. Yip

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